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Abdomen: the third main part of an insect. the abdomen of an ant consists of the propodeum, petiole, and the gaster

Acidopore: the orifice at the tip of the gaster of formicinae ants that emits formic acid for defense

Alate: winged

Alitrun: the second major body segment of the ant consisting of the thorax and the propodeum

Antenna: one of two flexible, segmented sensory appendages on the head of an insect

Antennal: fossa the depression in which the antenna is attached

Anterior: toward the front or head

Appressed: lying flat or close to the body

Bicolored: with two colors

Carina: an elevated ridge

Caste: a set of members of a colony that are specialized in behavior

Chitin: a tough, protective, semitransparent substance that forms the exoskeletons of arthropods

Cypeus: a plate on the lower part of the head above the mandibles.

Coxa: the small segment of the leg attached to the corresponding segment of the thorax.

Distal: the point farthest away from the body.

Dorsal: the upper surface or back.

Elaiosome: an appendage on some seeds that contains nutrients and are attractive to ants

Erect: are standing up straight

Exoskeleton: hard outer shell of arthropods made of chitin

Facet: one of the lenslike visual units of a compound eye - also called ommatidium

Forage: to search for food

Funiculus: the series of smaller segments of the antenna beyond the scape

Gaster: the large abdominal segments beyond the petiole and postpetiole (when present)

Head: the first main part of an insect containing the eyes, mouth, and antennae.

Honeydew: the sugary fluid excreted by sap eating insects such as aphids.

Humerus: shoulder

Longitudinal: running lengthwise along the body

Mandibles: the main jaws of the ant

Maxillae: the second pair of jaws folded beneath the mandibles

Maxillary palps: jointed sensory appendages originating from the maxillae

Medial: on or toward the midline

Mesonotum: the upper part of the middle segment of the thorax

Mesothorax: the second segment of the thorax.

Metathoax: the third segment of the thorax

Mutualism: a symbiotic relationship that benefits both partners

Myrmecochory: the dispersal of seeds by ants who are attracted by nutritious appendages on the seeds (elaiosomes).

Myrmencology: the study of ants.

Node: the knob-like upper portion of the petiole.

Occiput: top of the head.

Ocellus: (plural: ocelli) the two or three simple eyes on the top of the head.

Ommatidium: a single facet of a compound eye

Pectinate: comblike structure

Peduncle: the back section of the petiole joined to the propodeum

Petiole: the segment of the body between the alitrunk and the gaster

Posterior: toward the back of the body

Postpetiole: a second segment of the behind the petiole and in front of the gaster, not on all ants

Pronotum: the upper part of the first or anterior segment of the thorax

Propodeal: spine one of a pair of spines at the dorsal posterior end of the propodeum

Propodeum: the dorsal (on top) area on the thorax

Prothorax: the first segment of the thorax

Pubescence: a covering of small hairs

Rugose: wrinkles; raised ridges

Scale: the upright crested upper portion of the petiole; if rounded, also called a node

Scape: the first segment of the antenna

Sclerite: any area of the body set off by ridges or grooves

Sting: the sharp point at the tip of the gaster of some ants used to deliver venom.

Tarsus: the series of segments of the leg attached to the tibia

Thorax: the middle part of an insect's body to which the legs are attached

Tibia: the segment of the leg between the femur and the tarsus

Tibial spur: a spine on the tibia used for grooming the antennae

Transverse: running across the body, as opposed to longitudinal

Ventral: underneath (belly) side; as opposed to dorsal

Vertex: the top of the head above the eyes