You are here

Harvard Forest Data Archive

HF327

Leaf Traits of Darlingtonia Californica in Oregon and California 2001

Related Publications

Data

Overview

  • Lead: Aaron Ellison, Elizabeth Farnsworth
  • Investigators:
  • Contact: Aaron Ellison
  • Start date: 2001
  • End date: 2001
  • Status: completed
  • Location: California, Oregon
  • Latitude: 41.9 to 42.55
  • Longitude: -122 to -124
  • Elevation: 400 to 1250 meter
  • Taxa: Darlingtonia californica (California cobra-lily)
  • Release date: 2019
  • Revisions:
  • EML file: knb-lter-hfr.327.1
  • DOI: digital object identifier
  • Related links:
  • Study type: short-term measurement
  • Research topic: physiological ecology, population dynamics and species interactions
  • LTER core area: inorganic nutrients, primary production
  • Keywords: carnivorous plants, leaves, nitrogen, nutrients, phosphorus, photosynthesis
  • Abstract:

    Scaling relationships among photosynthetic rate, foliar nutrient concentration, and leaf mass per unit area (LMA) have been observed for a broad range of plants. Leaf traits of the carnivorous pitcher plant Darlingtonia californica, endemic to southern Oregon and northern California, USA, differ substantially from the predictions of these general scaling relationships; net photosynthetic rates of Darlingtonia are much lower than predicted by general scaling relationships given observed foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and LMA. At five sites in the center of its range, leaf traits of Darlingtonia were strongly correlated with elevation and differed with soil calcium availability and bedrock type. The mean foliar N : P of 25.2 6 15.4 of Darlingtonia suggested that these plants were P-limited, although N concentration in the substrate also was extremely low and prey capture was uncommon. Foliar N : P stoichiometry and the observed deviation of Darlingtonia leaf traits from predictions of general scaling relationships permit an initial assessment of the ‘‘cost of carnivory’’ in this species. Carnivory in plants is thought to have evolved in response to N limitation, but for Darlingtonia, carnivory is an evolutionary last resort when both N and P are severely limiting and photosynthesis is greatly reduced.

  • Methods:

    Site characterization

    All fieldwork was conducted from 3 to 13 August 2001. Elevation and location of each site was determined using a handheld Trimble GPS (Trimble Navigation, Sunnyvale, California, USA). Bedrock type was determined from field forms provided by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service, published sources, and field observations. At each site, five 50-mL surface water samples were collected in sterile plastic tubes, frozen, and shipped frozen to our laboratory in Massachusetts for chemical analysis. There, water pH and calcium concentration were measured with an Orion model 290A portable pH/ISE meter and Orion pH and calcium electrodes. Nitrogen (both NO3-N and NH4-N) and phosphorus (PO4-P) concentrations were determined spectrophotometrically using standard methods.

    Leaf traits – morphology

    At each site, we measured size and shape of the largest mature, fully expanded pitcher on 10–12 distinct plants (genets) haphazardly chosen from among a stand of 500–10 000 plants growing in full sun. The sample size was limited by federal collecting permits, and we were permitted to collect only leaves (pitchers), not whole plants. For each leaf, we used a flexible fabric tape to measure the height (± 1 mm) of the pitcher’s tube from ground level to the base of the hood; the circumference (± 1 mm) of the hood from its base, around the top, and down to the mouth; and the length and height (± 1 mm) of each half of the pitcher’s “winged appendage”. Dial calipers were used to measure the two diameters (± 0.1 mm) of the pitcher “mouth” and the diameter of the pitcher “tube” at its base, halfway up its length, and just below the pitcher “hood”.

    Leaf traits – physiology

    After measuring the leaf, we determined maximum photosynthetic rate (Aarea: μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) using a LI-COR 6200 infrared gas analysis system with a custom-built 4-L chamber that enclosed the pitcher hood, winged appendage, and upper 20 cm of the pitcher tube. The chamber was constructed of Lexan and included two fans (LI-COR) to ensure adequate mixing of air. All measurements of Aarea were taken between 0930 and 1430 hours and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) always exceeded 1000 mmol m-2 s-1. Chlorophyll contents of the pitcher tube, hood, and winged appendage were then assayed in the field using a CCM-200 chlorophyll content meter. The CCM-200 reports relative units (0–100), which we converted to actual units (mg chlorophyll [a + b]/ m2) after calibrating the device with direct measures of chlorophyll content using acetone extraction procedure (the conversion equation was mg chlorophyll/m2 = 391.8 + 16.78 × CCM units). The pitchers were then cut at the base, pressed in the field to prevent drying and loss of area, and returned within 24 h to our laboratory in Massachusetts where we used a LI-COR 3000 leaf area meter to determine the total area (±1 mm2) of the pitcher and the area of the portion of the pitcher that had been enclosed in the photosynthesis measurement chamber. The tube and hood were cut lengthwise and laid flat to get accurate measures of their area, and the area of the flat winged appendage was measured separately. We then dried the pitchers at 70 °C to constant mass, and weighed (± 0.001 g) the hood, winged appendage, and tube (sections inside and outside the photosynthesis chamber separately).

    Leaf tissue chemical analysis

    Each portion of the pitcher—hood, winged appendage, and tube—was ground in a Wiley mill prior to sending the samples to the University of Vermont Agricultural and Environmental Testing Laboratory where the C, N, and mineral content (P, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, and Ni) of the leaves were determined. Carbon and N content of the finely ground, dried samples were determined using a Leeman Lab model 440 CHN elemental analyzer. Mineral content was determined on microwave-digested samples using a Perkin-Elmer Optima 3000 DV inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) atomic emission spectrometer.

  • Use:

    This dataset is released to the public under Creative Commons license CC BY (Attribution). Please keep the designated contact person informed of any plans to use the dataset. Consultation or collaboration with the original investigators is strongly encouraged. Publications and data products that make use of the dataset must include proper acknowledgement.

  • Citation:

    Ellison A, Farnsworth E. 2019. Leaf Traits of Darlingtonia Californica in Oregon and California 2001. Harvard Forest Data Archive: HF327.

Detailed Metadata

hf327-01: site information

  1. site: site name
  2. code: site code
  3. ownership: ownership
    • BLM: Bureau of Land Management
    • USFS: United States Forest Service
  4. latitude: latitude (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  5. longitude: longitude (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  6. elevation: elevation (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  7. bedrock: bedrock type
  8. wetland.type: wetland type
    • Boggy: marshlike fen
    • Stream: streamside
  9. ph: pH of water samples (mean of n=2 replicates) (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  10. no3: nitrate in water samples (mg/L mean of n = 2 replicates) (unit: milligramsPerLiter / missing value: NA)
  11. nh4: ammonium in water samples (mg/L mean of n = 2 replicates) (unit: milligramsPerLiter / missing value: NA)
  12. ca: calcium in water samples (mg/L mean of n = 2 replicates) (unit: milligramsPerLiter / missing value: NA)
  13. daca.adults: number of adult Darlingtonia californica individuals (per m2; n = 25 1-m2 quadrats) (unit: numberPerMeterSquared / missing value: NA)
  14. daca.juveniles: number of juvenile Darlingtonia californica individuals (per m2; n = 25 1-m2 quadrats) (unit: numberPerMeterSquared / missing value: NA)
  15. daca.flowering: number of flowering Darlingtonia californica individuals (per m2; n = 25 1-m2 quadrats) (unit: numberPerMeterSquared / missing value: NA)

hf327-02: traits

  1. site: site code; see hf327-01-daca-site-info.csv for site names and characteristics
  2. plant: plant number; individual replicates (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  3. photo: area-based maximum photosynthetic rate (μmol CO2 m-2 s-1; mean of n = three 30-second measurements) (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  4. cond: area-based stomatal conductance (μmol CO2 m-2 s-1; mean of n = three 30-second measurements) (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  5. cint: intercellular concentration of CO2 (ppm; mean of n = three 30-second measurements) (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  6. rs: stomatal resistance (s cm-1; mean of n = three 30-second measurements) (unit: secondsPerCentimeter / missing value: NA)
  7. cs: stomatal conductance (cm s-1; mean of n = three 30-second measurements) (unit: centimetersPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  8. wing.chl: estimated chlorophyll concentration of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerSquareMeter / missing value: NA)
  9. tube.chl: estimated chlorophyll concentration of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerSquareMeter / missing value: NA)
  10. hood.chl: estimated chlorophyll concentration of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerSquareMeter / missing value: NA)
  11. hood.area: surface area of the pitcher “hood” (unit: squareMeter / missing value: NA)
  12. wing.area: surface area of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: squareMeter / missing value: NA)
  13. tube.area: surface area of the pitcher “tube” (unit: squareMeter / missing value: NA)
  14. hood.mass: oven-dried mass of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  15. wing.mass: oven-dried mass of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  16. tube.mass: oven-dried mass of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  17. c.hood: C content of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  18. h.hood: H content of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  19. n.hood: N content of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  20. c.tube: C content of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  21. h.tube: H content of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  22. n.tube: N content of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  23. c.wing: C content of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  24. h.wing: H content of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  25. n.wing: N content of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  26. ca.hood: Ca content of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  27. mg.hood: Mg content of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  28. k.hood: K content of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  29. p.hood: P content of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  30. na.hood: Na content of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  31. al.hood: Al content of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  32. mn.hood: Mn content of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  33. cu.hood: Cu content of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  34. zn.hood: Zn content of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  35. cr.hood: Cr content of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  36. co.hood: Co content of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  37. ni.hood: Ni content of the pitcher “hood” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  38. ca.tube: Ca content of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  39. mg.tube: Mg content of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  40. k.tube: K content of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  41. p.tube: P content of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  42. na.tube: Na content of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  43. al.tube: Al content of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  44. mn.tube: Mn content of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  45. cu.tube: Cu content of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  46. zn.tube: Zn content of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  47. cr.tube: Cr content of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  48. co.tube: Co content of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  49. ni.tube: Ni content of the pitcher “tube” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  50. ca.wing: Ca content of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  51. mg.wing: Mg content of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  52. k.wing: K content of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  53. p.wing: P content of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  54. na.wing: Na content of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  55. al.wing: Al content of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  56. mn.wing: Mn content of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  57. cu.wing: Cu content of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  58. zn.wing: Zn content of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  59. cr.wing: Cr content of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  60. co.wing: Co content of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  61. ni.wing: Ni content of the pitcher “winged appendage” (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  62. stemhgt: height of the pitcher from ground to below the “hood" (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  63. hoodlgnth: circumference of the hood from the top of the stemhgt measurement over the hood and down to the opening of the pitcher “mouth” (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  64. basediam: diameter of the pitcher “tube” at its base (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  65. middiam: diameter of the pitcher “tube” at its midpoint (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  66. topdiam: diameter of the pitcher “tube” at its top, just below the pitcher “hood” (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  67. mouthdiam: diameter of the pitcher “mouth” (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  68. wing1l: length of one of the two “winged appendages” (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  69. wing1w: width of one of the two “winged appendages” measured at its point of attachment to the pitcher “mouth” (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  70. wing2l: width of the second of the two “winged appendages” measured at its point of attachment to the pitcher “mouth” (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  71. wing2w: width of the second of the two “winged appendages” measured at its point of attachment to the pitcher “mouth” (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  72. spread: tip-to-tip distance of the “winged appendage” (unit: meter / missing value: NA)