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Harvard Forest Data Archive

HF319

Impacts of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid After Preventative Treatment in Lincoln MA 2015-2018

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Data

Overview

  • Lead: Brian Donahue, Jason Aylward, David Foster
  • Investigators: Tom Gumbart, Stacy Carter
  • Contact: Jason Aylward
  • Start date: 2015
  • End date: 2018
  • Status: completed
  • Location: Lincoln, MA
  • Latitude: +42.42 to +42.42
  • Longitude: -71.33 to -70.33
  • Elevation: 79 meter
  • Taxa: Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid), Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
  • Release date: 2019
  • Revisions:
  • EML file: knb-lter-hfr.319.1
  • DOI: digital object identifier
  • Related links:
  • Study type: long-term measurement
  • Research topic: conservation and management; historical and retrospective studies; invasive plants, pests and pathogens; large experiments and permanent plot studies
  • LTER core area: populations, disturbance
  • Keywords: hemlock, hemlock woolly adelgid, roots, tree maps, tree mortality
  • Abstract:

    In 2007 the town of Lincoln, MA treated the hemlock stand at the Codman estate with root injections of imidacloprid to suppress the invasive insect Hemlock Wooly Adelgid (HWA). This hemlock grove is unique for this area of Massachusetts and dominated by eastern hemlock of approximately 2 feet in diameter with many trees reaching heights of over 120 feet. The treatment goal was to conserve the trees and the stand’s cathedral-like characteristics. To accomplish this goal, every big canopy tree was treated.

  • Methods:

    The 4-acre treated hillside stand was divided into 3 areas. Those areas were split with a transect running horizontally to the base of the slope, following a compass bearing. These transects break up each area into uphill and downhill portions and create a total of 6 zones. The distance of each tree from the start of the transect was measured (meters) and its distance from the transect, uphill or downhill, was also noted. The trees were then plotted on a topo map.

    During the fall of 2015, the entire hillside was mapped and inventoried. Trees of all species with a DBH of 10 cm or larger were identified and tagged and had crown position recorded and mapped. Hemlock crown measurements were taken in early spring to assess the crowns without the interference of the surrounding hardwood trees. Crown diameter, tree height, crown height, crown base, lowest living branch and crown density were collected for all tagged trees. Crown density was estimated by crew members standing on 4 cardinal sides of a tree, about half the tree’s height away, and using the USFS visual crown density scale. The final measurement was the average of the four assessments. Hemlock trees also had canopy assessments for canopy closure as a proxy for HWA damage. Hemlock mortality was recorded annually.

    After the fall of 2015, large hemlocks were located in the swamp north of the treated stand. This smaller stand of approximately 3 acres was mapped and inventoried in the same way as the treated hillside stand.

    Literature Cited

    Schomaker, Michael E., Zarnoch, Stanley J., Bechtold, William A., Latelle, David J., Burkman, William G., Cox, Susan M. (2007). Crown-condition classification: a guide to data collection and analysis. Gen. Tech. Rep. SRS-102. Asheville, NC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. 78 p.

  • Use:

    This dataset is released to the public under Creative Commons license CC BY (Attribution). Please keep the designated contact person informed of any plans to use the dataset. Consultation or collaboration with the original investigators is strongly encouraged. Publications and data products that make use of the dataset must include proper acknowledgement.

  • Citation:

    Donahue B, Aylward J, Foster D. 2019. Impacts of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid After Preventative Treatment in Lincoln MA 2015-2018. Harvard Forest Data Archive: HF319.

Detailed Metadata

hf319-01: hillside tree locations

  1. type: waypoint or tract
  2. tag: tree tag number
  3. latitude: latitude (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  4. longitude: longitude (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  5. y.proj: y projection, WGS84 (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  6. x.proj: x projection, WGS84 (unit: meter / missing value: NA)

hf319-02: swamp tree locations

  1. type: waypoint or tract
  2. tag: tree tag number
  3. latitude: latitude (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  4. longitude: longitude (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  5. y.proj: y projection, WGS84 (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  6. x.proj: x projection, WGS84 (unit: meter / missing value: NA)

hf319-03: fall tree measurements

  1. hill.swamp: whether tree is located on the treated hillside or in the untreated swamp
    • hill: hillside
    • swamp: untreated swamp
  2. transect: transect number
  3. date: date of measurement
    • fall.2015: fall of 2015
    • fall.2016: fall of 2016
  4. slope: tree location in relation to transect line
    • uphill: uphill of the transect line
    • downhill: downhill of the transect line
    • triangle: triangle
  5. tag: tree tag number
  6. species: species code
    • acerpl: Acer platanoides, Norway maple
    • acerru: Acer rubrum, red maple
    • acersa: Acer saccharum, sugar maple
    • acersp: Acer species, unidentified maple
    • betual: Betula alleghaniensis, yellow birch
    • betule: Betula lenta, black birch
    • betupa: Betula papyrifera, paper birch
    • betupo: Betula populifolia, grey birch
    • carygl: Carya glabra, pignut hickory
    • fraxam: Fraxinus americana, white ash
    • fraxni: Fraxinus nigra, black ash
    • hardwd: hardwood species, unidentified hardwood species
    • nysssy: Nyssa sylvatica, black gum
    • ostrvi: ostrya virginiana, hop horn-beam
    • pinust: Pinus strobus, eastern white pine
    • popugr: Populus grandidentata, big-tooth aspen
    • prunse: Prunus serotina, black Ccherry
    • queral: Quercus alba, white oak
    • querru: Quercus rubra, northern red oak
    • quersp: Quercus species, unidentified oak species
    • querve: Quercus velutina, black oak
    • robips: Robinia pseudoacacia, black locust
    • tsugca: Tsuga canadensis, eastern hemlock
    • ulmuam: Ulmus americana, American elm
  7. dbh: diameter at breast height (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  8. crown.class: crown class
    • c: co-dominant
    • d: dominant
    • dd: dead
    • i: intermediate
    • s: suppressed
  9. health: hemlock crown health
    • 1: 100% foliage remaining
    • 2: 75% foliage remaining
    • 3: 50% foliage remaining
    • 4: 25% foliage remaining
    • 5: less than 25% foliage remaining
    • dead: dead
  10. x.dist: distance from the transect start (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  11. y.dist.absolute: distance away (uphill or downhill) from the transect line (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  12. treated: whether or not a hillside stand hemlock was treated in 2009 with root injected imidacloprid
    • y: treated
    • n: not treated
    • dead: dead
  13. ba: basal area (unit: squareCentimeters / missing value: NA)
  14. notes: notes

hf319-04: spring, summer, winter tree measurements

  1. hill.swamp: whether tree is located on the treated hillside or in the untreated swamp
    • hill: hillside
    • swamp: untreated swamp
  2. transect: transect number
  3. date: date of measurement
    • spring.2016: spring of 2016
    • summer.2016: summer of 2016
    • winter.2016: winter of 2016
    • summer.2017: summer of 2017
  4. slope: tree location in relation to transect line
    • uphill: uphill of the transect line
    • downhill: downhill of the transect line
    • triangle: triangle
  5. tag: tree tag number
  6. species: species code
    • acerpl: Acer platanoides, Norway maple
    • acerru: Acer rubrum, red maple
    • acersa: Acer saccharum, sugar maple
    • acersp: Acer species, unidentified maple
    • betual: Betula alleghaniensis, yellow birch
    • betule: Betula lenta, black birch
    • betupa: Betula papyrifera, paper birch
    • betupo: Betula populifolia, grey birch
    • carygl: Carya glabra, pignut hickory
    • fraxam: Fraxinus americana, white ash
    • fraxni: Fraxinus nigra, black ash
    • hardwd: hardwood species, unidentified hardwood species
    • nysssy: Nyssa sylvatica, black gum
    • ostrvi: ostrya virginiana, hop horn-beam
    • pinust: Pinus strobus, eastern white pine
    • popugr: Populus grandidentata, big-tooth aspen
    • prunse: Prunus serotina, black Ccherry
    • queral: Quercus alba, white oak
    • querru: Quercus rubra, northern red oak
    • quersp: Quercus species, unidentified oak species
    • querve: Quercus velutina, black oak
    • robips: Robinia pseudoacacia, black locust
    • tsugca: Tsuga canadensis, eastern hemlock
    • ulmuam: Ulmus americana, American elm
  7. dbh: diameter at breast height (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  8. height: tallest point on the tree, measured by laser from a distance of at least half the tree’s height (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  9. crown.height: top of the live crown; only different from height if tree has a dead top (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  10. crown.base: bottom of the living crown. The crown includes all leafy branches with no more than 4 feet between them (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  11. lowest.limb: height of the lowest limp; only different from crown.base if the lowest limb was separated from the crown base by 4 feet or more (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  12. dripline.1: first measurement to calculate crown diameter (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  13. dripline.2: second measurement to calculate crown diameter (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  14. crown.dia: calculated crown diameter; mean of dripline.1 and dripline.2 (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  15. crown.density: visual crown density estimate using USFS scale (Schomaker et al, 2007)
  16. notes: notes
  17. entered.by: initials of the person who entered the data
  18. date.entered: date of data entry

hf319-05: GIS shapefiles

  • Compression: zip
  • Format: GIS shapefile
  • Type: vector GIS

hf319-06: GIS shapefiles

  • Compression: zip
  • Format: GIS shapefile
  • Type: vector GIS