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Harvard Forest Data Archive

HF159

Moths, Ants and Pitcher Plants in Bogs at Harvard Forest and Belchertown MA 2007-2013

Related Publications

Data

Overview

  • Lead: Aaron Ellison, Nicholas Gotelli
  • Investigators:
  • Contact: Aaron Ellison
  • Start date: 2007
  • End date: 2013
  • Status: completed
  • Location: Tom Swamp Tract (Harvard Forest), Swift River Bog (Belchertown MA)
  • Latitude: +40.5 to +47.5
  • Longitude: -74.3 to -66.9
  • Elevation: 0 to 1900 meter
  • Taxa: Dolichoderus pustulatus, Exyra fax, Formica subaenescens, Lasius minutus, Myrmica lobifrons, Papaipema appassionata, Sarracenia purpurea, Tapinoma sessile
  • Release date: 2016
  • Revisions:
  • EML file: knb-lter-hfr.159.16
  • DOI: digital object identifier
  • Related links:
  • Study type: short-term measurement
  • Research topic: physiological ecology, population dynamics and species interactions
  • LTER core area: populations
  • Keywords: biogeography, carnivorous plants, food webs, insects
  • Abstract:

    Ecologists have long recognized that coexistence of interacting species depends on a diversity of separate, but linked habitats. Most models of species coexistence treat these habitat "patches" as unchanging elements of the landscape, but in reality, they are constantly changing in size and shape. The structure and dynamics of the food webs that inhabit them both control and depend on these changes. In this five-year (2006-2011) collaborative project, we are using a combination of extensive field surveys and intensive field experiments to understand how species interactions change the spatial distribution of dynamic habitat patches across the landscape, and to determine how food webs are structured within and among these patches. The experimental system for this five-year research project is the Sarracenia "microecosystem": the northern pitcher-plant Sarracenia purpurea; the unique food web of bacteria, protozoa, rotifers, mites, and fly larvae that live within its rainwater-filled leaves; three species of bog-inhabiting ants that are the primary prey for this carnivorous plant; and larvae of the pitcher-plant moth, Exyra fax, which cut and drain pitchers and remove food web habitat. Results from surveys of bogs in all six New England state and field experiments conducted at bogs at Harvard Forest and Belchertown, Massachusetts will be used to parameterize a simulation model to predict changes in spatial structure of ant, moth, and plant populations, and the structure and composition of the aquatic food web associated with the plant. This work is funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, through collaborative awards 0541680 and 0541936.

  • Methods:

    Field Surveys

    Bogs for extensive field sampling are identified in collaboration with state officials, natural heritage programs, conservation agencies, etc. Necessary permits are obtained from appropriate permitting authorities. At each bog, we establish a 10m x 10m grid in the pitcher plant zone (plot dimensions are altered if the habitat zone for pitcher plants is too narrow. The plot is gridded at 1-m intervals. At each flagged point, we record relative moisture level of the bog mat as (high and dry, low and damp, or flooded). We also search for ant workers or ant nests within 20-cm of each flag. Representative samples of workers are hand-collected and fixed in ethanol for later identification. Voucher specimens are stored in Harvard’s Museum of Comparative Zoology. From each grid point, we locate the nearest pitcher plant and measure the distance to it with a tape measure and record the compass direction. We then count the number of old pitchers, measure the length of the 1st new pitcher, the rosette diameter, and the flowering status (flower, fruit, aborted bud) on each of these neighbor plants. We will also note any records of damage to pitcher plants from herbivorous moth larvae. We then collect five 50 ml water samples, one from each corner of the plot and one from the center of the grid. Water samples are collected by pressing a plastic centrifuge tube into the bog mat until it fills with pore water. Samples are pooled, filtered, and analyzed for anions and cations. Concurrent with water collections, we also collect 5 small handfuls of Sphagnum moss; identifications of Sphagnum species are done in the lab and confirmed by taxonomic specialists. Voucher specimens are stored in Harvard’s Farlow Herbarium.

    Field Experiments

    (1) Tom Swamp Experiment: In April 2007, we established four 6 x 6 m plots on the bog mat. In these plots, we manipulated pitcher-plant density and pitcher-plant spatial arrangement by transplanting 120 greenhouse-grown pitcher plants into each plot. Transplants are in 4" plastic pots and were placed in regular arrays within the peat mat. At the end of the experiment, all transplants and pots will be removed (destructive harvest). If any transplants flower, flowers are removed so that no seeds from non-Tom Swamp lines can establish in the field. On each transplant we measure: presence/absence of pitcher plant moths (July), food web structure in pitcher plants (end of experiment), occurrence and distribution of other pitcher plants (seedlings, nonflowering adult plants, adult plants) within 5 replicate 6 x 6 m plots (May, September), and growth rates of pitcher plants (September).

    (2) Belchertown experiment: In this experiment, we simulate herbivory by Exyra fax larvae cutting a hole in a Sarracenia leaf that mimics the effects of larval feeding. To increase the realism of the experiment, we rub the inside of the wound with scrapings from real Exyra attacks, to facilitate the transfer of fungi and bacteria that are often associated with natural bore holes. Four experimental treatments were applied to 80 randomly selected adult plants (at least 10 cm longest leaf) at Swift River Bog in Belchertown, Massachusetts: 1) control (no plant manipulations), 2) single Exyra attack (only the first leaf of the season has a hole-punch), 3) multiple Exyra attacks (all leaves are perforated with a hole-punch), 4) single leaf removal (the first leaf of the season is entirely removed before it opens). Treatments were applied in 2007 and 2009. Plant growth, prey capture, and ant-nest distributions were measured in July (ants) and September (growth, prey capture) annually from 2007-2010.

    Data Files

    In data file hf159-05-MAPP-exp1-growth.csv, an entry of -1 in any field indicates that the plant was dead at that census.

  • Use:

    This dataset is released to the public under Creative Commons license CC BY (Attribution). Please keep the designated contact person informed of any plans to use the dataset. Consultation or collaboration with the original investigators is strongly encouraged. Publications and data products that make use of the dataset must include proper acknowledgement.

  • Citation:

    Ellison A, Gotelli N. 2016. Moths, Ants and Pitcher Plants in Bogs at Harvard Forest and Belchertown MA 2007-2013. Harvard Forest Data Archive: HF159.

Detailed Metadata

hf159-01: bog characteristics

  1. state: one of six New England states
    • CT: Connecticut
    • MA: Massachusetts
    • NH: New Hampshire
    • RI: Rhode Island
    • VT: Vermont
    • ME: Maine
  2. bog: letter code uniquely identifying each sampled bog
  3. name: local name of the sampled bog
  4. date: date bog was sampled
  5. plotortn: orientation of the y-axis of the plot (from point 1000,1000 to point 1000,10000), in degrees east of magnetic north (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  6. lat: latitude of SW corner (point 1000, 1000) of sampled plot in decimal degrees, to nearest 100th (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  7. long: longitude of SW corner (point 1000, 1000) of sampled plot in decimal degrees, to nearest 100th (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  8. elevation: elevation in meters above sea level (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  9. nplants: number of Sarracenia purpurea plants measured in the plot (maximum = 100; NA = no plants measured, only at Bowdich Reservoir Bogs, RI) (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  10. papaipema: number of plants attacked by Papaipema appassionata (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  11. exyra: number of plants with leaves exhibiting damage by Exyra fax (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. endothenia: number of plants attacked by Endothenia deakana (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  13. bud: number of plants that attempted to flower (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  14. flower: number of plants that successfully flowered. Less than or equal to bud (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  15. fruit: number of plants that successfully fruited. Less than or equal to flower (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  16. na: concentration of Sodium measured in water samples taken from the plot. Values are from subsample of five pooled 50-ml samples taken at corners and center of plot. (unit: milligramsPerLiter / missing value: NA)
  17. nh4: concentration of Ammonium measured in water samples taken from the plot. Values are from subsample of five pooled 50-ml samples taken at corners and center of plot. (unit: milligramsPerLiter / missing value: NA)
  18. k: concentration of Potassium measured in water samples taken from the plot. Values are from subsample of five pooled 50-ml samples taken at corners and center of plot. (unit: milligramsPerLiter / missing value: NA)
  19. mg: concentration of Magnesium measured in water samples taken from the plot. Values are from subsample of five pooled 50-ml samples taken at corners and center of plot. (unit: milligramsPerLiter / missing value: NA)
  20. ca: concentration of Calcium measured in water samples taken from the plot. Values are from subsample of five pooled 50-ml samples taken at corners and center of plot. (unit: milligramsPerLiter / missing value: NA)
  21. cl: concentration of Chloride measured in water samples taken from the plot. Values are from subsample of five pooled 50-ml samples taken at corners and center of plot. (unit: milligramsPerLiter / missing value: NA)
  22. no3: concentration of Nitrate measured in water samples taken from the plot. Values are from subsample of five pooled 50-ml samples taken at corners and center of plot. (unit: milligramsPerLiter / missing value: NA)
  23. po4: concentration of Phosphate measured in water samples taken from the plot. Values are from subsample of five pooled 50-ml samples taken at corners and center of plot. (unit: milligramsPerLiter / missing value: NA)
  24. so4: concentration of Sulfate measured in water samples taken from the plot. Values are from subsample of five pooled 50-ml samples taken at corners and center of plot. (unit: milligramsPerLiter / missing value: NA)

hf159-02: bog sarracenia

  1. state: one of the six New England states. See HF159-01-bog-chars.csv
  2. bog: code for sampled site. See HF159-01-bog-chars.csv for more detailed description of each bog
  3. grid.x: location, in millimeters, of sample. Point (1000, 1000) is the SW corner of the plot, point (10000,10000) is the NE corner of the plot, and point (5000, 5000) is the center of the plot. At three bogs – Beeslick and Pauchaug in Connecticut, Bowdich Reservoir in RI – samples were collected haphazardly throughout the non-gridded sampling area. (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  4. grid.y: location, in millimeters, of sample. Point (1000, 1000) is the SW corner of the plot, point (10000,10000) is the NE corner of the plot, and point (5000, 5000) is the center of the plot. At three bogs – Beeslick and Pauchaug in Connecticut, Bowdich Reservoir in RI – samples were collected haphazardly throughout the non-gridded sampling area. (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  5. moisture: qualitative description of hummock/hollow topography at location (gridX, gridY)
    • H: high and dry, on a Sphagnum hummock
    • L: low and damp, in a Sphagnum hollow
    • F: flooded; standing water visible in a Sphagnum hollow
  6. plant.x: actual location, in millimeters relative to SW corner of the plot of each Sarracenia purpurea closest to location (grid.x, grid.y) (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  7. plant.y: actual location, in millimeters relative to SW corner of the plot of each Sarracenia purpurea closest to location (grid.x, grid.y) (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  8. d.to.xy: distance, in millimeters from (plant.x, plant.y) to (grid.x, grid.y). This is measured if unique.plant = 1 and interpolated if unique.plant = 0. If plant.x = grid.x and plant.y = grid.y, then d.to.xy = 0 (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  9. unique.plant: flag indicating whether the plant was actually measured (1), of if it was measured as the closest plant to another (gridX, gridY) (0). If unique.plant = 0, this means that the plant is “shared” with a point (gridX, gridY). For descriptions of individual populations, subset on unique.plant = 1.
    • 1: plant was actually measured
    • 0: plant was measured as the closest plant to another (gridX, gridY)
  10. npitchers: number of pitchers produced in current year up to date of measurement (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  11. nphyllodes: number of phyllodia (flat pitchers) produced in current year up to date of measurement (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. longestleaf: length, in millimeters, of the longest pitcher or phyllode (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  13. rosediam: Largest diameter, in mm, of the rosette. If npitchers + nphyllodes = 1, then rosediam = 0. (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  14. bud: attempted to flower or at least produced bud (1) or did not (0)
    • 1: attempted to flower or at least produced bud
    • 0: did not attempt to flower or produce bud
  15. flower: plant at least flowered (1) or did not (e.g., bud aborted or eaten) (0). QA/QC check: if bud = 0, then flower must = 0.
    • 1: plant at least flowered
    • 0: plant did not flower
  16. fruit: plant had fruited by sampling date (1) or did not (e.g., bud aborted, flower eaten) (0). QA/QC check: if flower = 0, then fruit must = 0.
    • 1: plant had fruited by sampling date
    • 0: plant had not fruited by sampling date
  17. papiapema: rhizome bored by Papaipema appassionata and frass pyramid visible (1), or not (0)
    • 1: rhizome bored by Papaipema appassionata and frass pyramid visible
    • 0: rhizome not bored by Papaipema appassionata and frass pyramid not visible
  18. exyra: at least one pitchers mined by Exyra fax (1), or not (0). QA/QC check: if npitchers = 0, then exyra must = 0.
    • 1: at least one pitchers mined by Exyra fax
    • 0: no pitchers mined by Exyra fax
  19. exdam: number of pitchers mined by Exyra fax (range 0 to npitchers). QA/QC check: if exyra = 0, then exdam must = 0; if exyra = 1, then 1 ≤ exdam ≤ npitchers. (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  20. endothenia: flower/fruit attacked by Endothenia deakana (1) or not (0). QA/QC check: If flower = 0, then endothenia must = 0.
    • 1: flower/fruit attacked by Endothenia deakana
    • 0: flower/fruit not attacked by Endothenia deakana
  21. antinplant: an ant nest present in a drained, old pitcher (1) or not (0)
    • 1: ant nest present in a drained, old pitcher
    • 0: no ant nest present in a drained, old pitcher
  22. antatpoint: an ant nest is present within a 10-cm circle around (gridX, gridY)
    • 1: ant nest is present within a 10-cm circle around (gridX, gridY)
    • 0: no ant nest is present within a 10-cm circle around (gridX, gridY)
  23. ant.substrate: type of vegetation the the ant nest is in. Usually “sphagnum”, “sarracenia”, but occasionally others. QA/QC check: if antinplant AND antatpoint = 0, then antsubstrate = NA
  24. antsp1: species of ant collected (if applicable). Alphanumeric string length 6 or 7; see HF147 for translation of species code to full genus, species.
  25. antsp2: second species of ant collected (if applicable). Alphanumeric string length 6 or 7; see HF147 for translation of species code to full genus, species.
  26. antsp3: species of ant collected (if applicable). Alphanumeric string length 6 or 7; see HF147 for translation of species code to full genus, species.
  27. sortcode: record number. 1 – max. As of spring 2010, max(sortcode) = 5778.

hf159-03: bog sphagnum

  1. state: one of six New England states. See HF159-01-bog-chars.csv
  2. bog: code for sampled site. See HF159-01-bog-chars.csv for more detailed description of each bog
  3. grid.x: location, in millimeters, of sample. Point (1000,1000) is the SW corner of the plot, point (10000,10000) is the NE corner of the plot, and point (5000, 5000) is the center of the plot. At three bogs – Beeslick and Pauchaug in Connecticut, Bowdich Reservoir in RI – samples were collected haphazardly throughout the non-gridded sampling area. (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  4. grid.y: location, in millimeters, of sample. Point (1000,1000) is the SW corner of the plot, point (10000,10000) is the NE corner of the plot, and point (5000, 5000) is the center of the plot. At three bogs – Beeslick and Pauchaug in Connecticut, Bowdich Reservoir in RI – samples were collected haphazardly throughout the non-gridded sampling area. (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  5. affine: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  6. angustifolium: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  7. angermanicum: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  8. bartlettianum: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  9. capillifolium: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  10. centrale: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  11. compactum: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  12. cuspidatum: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  13. fallax: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  14. fimbriatum: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  15. flavicomans: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  16. flexuosum: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  17. fuscum: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  18. magellanicum: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  19. nemoreum: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  20. pallustre: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  21. papillosum: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  22. recurvum: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  23. rubellum: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  24. russowii: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  25. subtile: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot
  26. tenellum: species presence in the particular sample at each site
    • 1: present
    • 0: absent
    • NA: no Sphagnum at that point in the plot

hf159-04: MAPP experiment 1 plotmap

  1. plot.num: experimental plot number. Range 1 – 4.
  2. row: row mid-point (y-coordinate), in meters. Range 0.5 – 5.5 (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  3. column: column mid-point (x-coordinate), in meters. Range 0.5 – 5.5 (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  4. num.plants: number of plants at location (column, row). Range 1 – 6 (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  5. treat.group: size group of plants placed at location (column, row). See file HF159-05-MAPPexp1-growth.csv for initial sizes of each individual plant.
    • A: mean rosette diameter of plants is 27 mm
    • B: mean rosette diameter of plants is 55 mm
    • C: mean rosette diameter of plants is 77 mm
    • D: mean rosette diameter of plants is 99 mm
    • E: mean rosette diameter of plants is 121 mm
    • F: mean rosette diameter of plants is 139 mm
  6. plant.num: identifier for each plant. Range 1 – 504. See HF159-05-MAPPexp1-growth.csv for growth and survivorship data of each individual plant.

hf159-05: MAPP experiment 1 growth

  1. plot.num: experimental plot number. Range 1 – 4.
  2. plant.num: identifier for each plant. Range 1 – 504; corresponds with HF159-04-MAPPexp1-plotmap.csv
  3. censored: for survivorship analysis
    • 0: plant has died at some point during the experiment
    • 1: plant is still alive at the end of the experiment
  4. pitchers.init: number of pitchers at the start of the experiment, April 2007. NOTE: an entry of -1 in any of the following fields indicates that the plant was dead at that census. (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  5. length.init: length of longest pitcher at the start of the experiment, April 2007 (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  6. rose.init: rosette diameter at the start of the experiment, April 2007. If pitchers.init = 1 then rose.init = NA (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  7. pitchers.2007: number of pitchers in September 2007; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  8. phyllodes.2007: Number of phyllodia (flat pitchers) in September 2007; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  9. bud.2008: flower bud presence in May 2008
    • 1: flower bud present
    • 0: flower bud absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  10. flower.2008: flower presence in June 2008
    • 1: flower present
    • 0: flower absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  11. fruit.2008: fruit presence in September 2008
    • 1: fruit present
    • 0: fruit absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  12. exyra.2008: Exyra fax presence in July 2008
    • 1: Exyra fax present
    • 0: Exyra fax absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  13. papaipema.2008: Papaipema appassionata presence in July 2008
    • 1: Papaipema appassionata present
    • 0: Papaipema appassionata absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  14. ant.2008: if ant found nesting within 20-cm of plant, the six- or seven-character alphanumeric species code is entered here. Otherwise NA. See HF147 for translation of species code to actual genus and species. An entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census
  15. pitchers.2008: number of pitchers in September 2008; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  16. phyllodes.2008: number of phyllodes in September 2008; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  17. length.2008: length of longest pitcher in September 2008; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  18. rose.2008: rosette diameter in September 2008; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  19. bud.2009: flower bud presence in May 2009
    • 1: flower bud present
    • 0: flower bud absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  20. flower.2009: flower presence in June 2009
    • 1: flower present
    • 0: flower absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  21. fruit.2009: fruit presence in September 2009
    • 1: fruit present
    • 0: fruit absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  22. exyra.2009: Exyra fax presence in July 2009
    • 1: Exyra fax present
    • 0: Exyra fax absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  23. papaipema.2009: Papaipema appassionata presence in July 2009
    • 1: Papaipema appassionata present
    • 0: Papaipema appassionata absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  24. ant.2009: if ant found nesting within 20-cm of plant, the six- or seven-character alphanumeric species code is entered here. See HF147 for translation of species code to actual genus and species. An entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census
  25. pitchers.2009: number of pitchers in September 2009; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  26. phyllodes.2009: number of phyllodes in September 2009; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  27. length.2009: length of longest pitcher in September 2009; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  28. rose.2009: rosette diameter in September 2009; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  29. bud.2010: flower bud presence in May 2010
    • 1: flower bud present
    • 0: flower bud absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  30. flower.2010: flower presence in June 2010
    • 1: flower present
    • 0: flower absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  31. fruit.2010: fruit presence in September 2010
    • 1: fruit present
    • 0: fruit absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  32. exyra.2010: Exyra fax presence in July 2010
    • 1: Exyra fax present
    • 0: Exyra fax absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  33. papaipema.2010: Papaipema appassionata presence in July 2010
    • 1: Papaipema appassionata present
    • 0: Papaipema appassionata absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  34. ant.2010: if ant found nesting within 20-cm of plant, the six- or seven-character alphanumeric species code is entered here. See HF147 for translation of species code to actual genus and species. An entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census
  35. pitchers.2010: number of pitchers in September 2010; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  36. phyllodes.2010: number of phyllodes in September 2010; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  37. length.2010: length of longest pitcher in September 2010; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  38. rose.2010: rosette diameter in September 2010; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  39. bud.2011: flower bud presence on 27 May 2011
    • 1: flower bud present
    • 0: flower bud absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  40. flower.2011: flower presence on 27 June 2011
    • 1: flower present
    • 0: flower absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  41. fruit.2011: fruit presence on 28 June 2011
    • 1: fruit present
    • 0: fruit absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  42. exyra.2011: Exyra fax presence on 28 June 2011
    • 1: Exyra fax present
    • 0: Exyra fax absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  43. papaipema.2011: Papaipema appassionata presence on 28 June 2011
    • 1: Papaipema appassionata present
    • 0: Papaipema appassionata absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  44. ant.2011: if ant found nesting on 28 June 2011 within 20-cm of plant, the six- or seven-character alphanumeric species code is entered here. See HF147 for translation of species code to actual genus and species. An entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census
  45. pitchers.2011: number of pitchers on 4 September 2011; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  46. phyllodes.2011: number of phyllodes on 4 September 2011; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  47. length.2011: length of longest pitcher on 4 September 2011; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  48. rose.2011: rosette diameter on 4 September 2011; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  49. bud.2012: flower bud presence on 28 May 2012
    • 1: flower bud present
    • 0: flower bud absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  50. flower.2012: flower presence on 28 May 2012
    • 1: flower present
    • 0: flower absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  51. fruit.2012: fruit presence on 25 July 2012
    • 1: fruit present
    • 0: fruit absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  52. exyra.2012: Exyra fax presence on 25 July 2012
    • 1: Exyra fax present
    • 0: Exyra fax absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  53. papaipema.2012: Papaipema appassionata presence on 25 July 2012
    • 1: Papaipema appassionata present
    • 0: Papaipema appassionata absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  54. ant.2012: if ant found nesting on 25 July 2012 within 20-cm of plant, the six- or seven-character alphanumeric species code is entered here. See HF147 for translation of species code to actual genus and species. An entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census
  55. pitchers.2012: number of pitchers on 4 September 2012; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  56. phyllodes.2012: number of phyllodes on 4 September 2012; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  57. length.2012: length of longest pitcher on 4 September 2012; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  58. rose.2012: rosette diameter on 4 September 2012; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  59. pitchers.2013: number of pitchers on 28 August 2013; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  60. phyllodes.2013: number of phyllodes on August 28 2013; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  61. exyra.2013: Exyra fax presence on 28 August 2013
    • 1: Exyra fax present
    • 0: Exyra fax absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  62. papaipema.2013: Papaipema appassionata presence on 28 August 2013
    • 1: Papaipema appassionata present
    • 0: Papaipema appassionata absent
    • -1: plant was dead at that census
  63. length.2013: length of longest pitcher on 28 August 2013; an entry of -1 indicates that the plant was dead at that census (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  64. shootmass.2013: oven-dried mass of aboveground tissue on 28 August 2013 (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  65. rootmass.2013: oven-dried mass of belowground tissue on 28 August 2013 (unit: gram / missing value: NA)

hf159-06: MAPP experiment 3

  1. plant: plant number. Range 501 – 580. Plants 570 and 575 do not exist.
  2. treatment: moth simulation treatment applied
    • 1st CUT: first leaf with hole punch in 2007 and 2009 to simulate Exyra damage
    • ALL CUT: all leaves with holes punched in 2007 and 2009 to simulate Exyra and Papaipema damage
    • REMOVE: first leaf removed in 2007 and 2009
    • control: no treatment
  3. censored: for survivorship analysis
    • 0: plant has died at some point during the experiment
    • 1: plant is still alive at the end of the experiment
  4. bud.2008: flower bud presence in May 2008. NOTE: an entry of -99999 in any of the following fields indicates that the plant was dead at that census.
    • 1: flower bud present
    • 0: flower bud absent
  5. flower.2008: flower presence in June 2008
    • 1: flower present
    • 0: flower absent
  6. fruit.2008: fruit presence in September 2008
    • 1: fruit present
    • 0: fruit absent
  7. ant.2008: if ant found nesting in July 2008 within 100-cm of plant, the six- or seven-character alphanumeric species code is entered here. Otherwise NA. See HF147 for translation of species code to actual genus and species.
  8. d.ant.2008: distance to ant nest from plant in July 2008 (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  9. length.2008: length of longest pitcher in September 2008 (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  10. rose.2008: rosette diameter in September 2008. If pitchers.2008 + phyllodes.2008 = 1, then rose.2008 = NA (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  11. pitchers.2008: number of pitchers present in September 2008 (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. phyllodes.2008: number of phyllodes (flattened pitchers) present in September 2008 (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  13. bud.2009: flower bud presence in May 2009
    • 1: flower bud present
    • 0: flower bud absent
  14. flower.2009: flower presence in June 2009
    • 1: flower present
    • 0: flower absent
  15. fruit.2009: fruit presence in September 2009
    • 1: fruit present
    • 0: fruit absent
  16. ant.2009: if ant found nesting in July 2009 within 100-cm of plant, the six- or seven-character alphanumeric species code is entered here. Otherwise NA. See HF147 for translation of species code to actual genus and species.
  17. d.ant.2009: distance to ant nest from plant in July 2009 (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  18. length.2009: length of longest pitcher in September 2009 (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  19. rose.2009: rosette diameter in September 2009. If pitchers.2009 + phyllodes.2009 = 1, then rose.2009 = NA (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  20. pitchers.2009: number of pitchers present in September 2009 (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  21. phyllodes.2009: number of phyllodes (flattened pitchers) present in September 2009 (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  22. bud.2010: flower bud presence in May 2010
    • 1: flower bud present
    • 0: flower bud absent
  23. flower.2010: flower presence in June 2010
    • 1: flower present
    • 0: flower absent
  24. fruit.2010: fruit presence in September 2010
    • 1: fruit present
    • 0: fruit absent
  25. ant.2010: if ant found nesting in July 2010 within 100-cm of plant, the six- or seven-character alphanumeric species code is entered here. Otherwise NA. See HF147 for translation of species code to actual genus and species.
  26. d.ant.2010: distance to ant nest from plant in July 1010 (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  27. length.2010: length of longest pitcher in September 2010 (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  28. rose.2010: rosette diameter in September 2010. If pitchers.2010 + phyllodes.2010 = 1, then rose.2010 = NA (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  29. pitchers.2010: number of pitchers present in September 2010 (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  30. phyllodes.2010: number of phyllodes (flattened pitchers) present in September 2010 (number ). In 2010, always = 0 (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  31. pitchermass.2010: total dry mass of all pitchers harvested in September 2010 (unit: gram / missing value: NA)