Harvard Forest Data Archive

HF113

Ants Under Climate Change at Harvard Forest and Duke Forest since 2009

Related Publications

Data

Overview

  • Lead: Aaron Ellison, Robert Dunn
  • Investigators: Mark Boudreau, Nicholas Gotelli, Neil McCoy, Shannon Pelini, Renee Marchin, Nathan Sanders
  • Contact: Aaron Ellison
  • Start date: 2009-01-25
  • End date: 2015-07-15
  • Status: ongoing
  • Location: Prospect Hill Tract (Harvard Forest), Duke Forest (NC)
  • Latitude: +35.87 to +42.53
  • Longitude: -79.98 to -72.19
  • Elevation: 130 to 340 meter
  • Taxa: Dolichoderinae, Formicidae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinae
  • Release date: 2009
  • Revisions: data updated monthly
  • EML file: knb-lter-hfr.113.54
  • DOI: digital object identifier
  • Related links:
  • Study type: long-term measurement
  • Research topic: large experiments and permanent plot studies
  • LTER core area: populations, disturbance
  • Keywords: abundance, air temperature, ants, climate change, community structure, phenology, soil temperature
  • Abstract:

    Experimental field studies are needed to understand the consequences of global climatic changefor local community structure and associated ecosystem processes. We are using 5-m diameter open-top environmental chambers and 1m pvc minichambers to simultaneously manipulate air and soil temperatures at the Harvard Forest and at the Duke Forest in North Carolina. These field manipulations are designed to reveal the effects of temperature increases on the populations, communities, and associated ecosystem services of assemblages of ground-foraging ants. Ants are a model taxon for studying effects of global climatic change because they comprise the dominant fraction of animal biomass in many terrestrial communities and because they provide essential ecosystem services, including soil turnover, decomposition, and seed dispersal. The experiment is designed to test three predictions: 1. Projected atmospheric warming will lead to declines in ant species’ abundances at the warmer, southern extent of their ranges in the US. Conversely, projected atmospheric warming will lead to increases in abundance or range extensions of ant species at the cooler, northern extent of their ranges in the US. 2. Warming will change the relative abundance and composition of ant communities, and will lead to the loss of ant biodiversity. 3. Warming will potentially diminish ecosystem processes and services provided by ants, particularly with respect to the dispersal of seeds. To explore these, we are conducting two experiments. In one experiment, twelve open-top chambers at each site which will each be exposed air temperatures ranging from 1.5 to 7 deg C above ambient; soil temperatures will be increased simultaneously from 0 to ~ 2 deg C. After an initial year of pre-intervention measurements, the experiment will run for 3 consecutive years of continuous warming. In the second experiment, shade cloth and plastic greenhouse sheeting will be used to increase or decrease temperature by 0.5 deg C in sixty minichambers. The minichamber experiment was conducted in 2009 and will continue into 2010. The response variables measured in both experiments include ant activity, population densities and colony sizes of focal species, ant community diversity and species composition, and rates of seed dispersal and predation as mediated by ants.

  • Methods:

    Open-top Chambers

    Microclimatic measurements in each chamber at Harvard and Duke Forests include: three measurements of air temperatures, two measurements each of soil temperatures in organic and mineral soil, one measure of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), one measurement of relative humidity, one measurement of soil moisture. In two chambers, we are also measuring soil heat flux, associated soil temperatures at 2 and 6 cm, and volumetric water content. All measurements are hourly averages, and we report out mean, minimum, and maximum values, along with battery voltages.

    Minichambers

    We used two thermistors to record air and soil (at 2 cm depth) temperatures in each Harvard Forest minichamber. At Duke Forest, we monitored temperature in seven randomly-chosen minichambers of each treatment (21 total) using iButton(R) electronic temperature sensors (Dallas Semiconductors, Dallas, TX). All temperature sensors were placed approx. 20 cm northeast of the center of each minichamber. We report the hourly average, mean and maximum air and soil temperature for Harvard Forest minichambers and the bihourly average air temperature for Duke Forest minichambers.

    Thermal Tolerance Assays

    Ants were collected on or near Harvard Forest property during the months of June and July 2010. Upon discovery of ant colonies, we collected approximately 20 workers per species using an aspirator and immediately transported them back to the lab for identification and analysis. We performed heat tolerance assays on a minimum of eight individuals of each species within 4 hours of field collection, in order to prevent individuals from acclimating to laboratory temperatures. We prepared individuals for testing by placing individual ants into 1.5 ml microcentrifuge tubes which contained a cotton plug packed into the lid. The plug limited ants from accessing the vial lid, which may have served as a thermal refuge and thus not exposed the individual to the intended experimental temperatures. Once in the tubes, we randomly assigned each ant to a slot in an 8x6 Thermal-Lok Dry Heat Bath (USA Scientific), which was pre-warmed to 38 deg C. We increased the temperature by 2 deg C every 10 minutes until 100% mortality was reached. At the end of each ten minute interval, we checked the ants for survival and noted the temperature at which death or permanent muscle coordination loss occurred. Heat tolerance was deemed the highest temperature at which an individual ant survived for the entire ten minute increased temperature interval. We used a ninth tube as the control; which remained in the test tube storage cardboard container and was not experimentally heated. We then mounted each individual ant using standard curatorial procedure and vouchered the samples at the Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology , Cambridge Massachusetts. For every mounted ant, we measured Weber’s length (Brown 1953) length as a commonly used measure of body size, which is calculated as the distance from the anterodorsal margin of the pronotum to the posteroventral margin of the propodeum. To obtain this morphometric value, we used a dissecting microscope with 25x power eyepiece containing a built-in micrometer at 12x magnification. We also calculated water balance in later replicated trials. Using a Sartorius microbalance (model m2p) with readability to .001 mg, we weighed ants prior to the heating treatments (we called this weight live mass or LM). Again at least eight individuals of each species were tested using the same Thermal tolerance evaluation procedure described above. After the thermal tolerance protocol was replicated the sacrificed individuals we weighed to measure moribund mass (MM). We dried the ants for an additional 12 hours at 65 deg C and subsequently weighed a final time to determine dry mass (DM). We used the following calculations to determine total and critical water content (TWC and CWC) as percentages of live mass (LM) (Schilman et al. 2007): %TWC = ((LM−DM)x100)/LM, %CWC = ((MM−DM)x100)/LM.

    Plant Quadrats

    Each chamber has one, 1m x 1m quadrat used to monitor plant composition. Each quadrat has 4 subquadrats. In each subquadrat, all woody plants are tagged with bird bands, and plant height, diameter, number of leaves, and the number of leaves with pathogen, herbivore and mechanical damange are recorded. We also record percent cover of all plants occupying the quadrats.

    Plant Phenology (HF)

    We track plant phenology in all chambers. 10 woody plants (or fewer of 10 are not present) are selected in each chamber, with preference given for red maple, stiped maple, beech and red oak. These plants are marked and numbered and are monitored every other week during fall until they have dropped their leaves. The selected plants do not all occur within the 1m x 1m plant quadrats described above.

    Plant Phenology (DF)

    Vegetative Phenological Observations: We visited the experimental site every 4 to 7 days during the period of bud break (early March to mid-April in 2011 and 2013) and weekly during the period of leaf senescence (mid-October to early December in 2011) to observe the vegetative phenological stage of four tree species (A. rubrum, C. tomentosa, Q. alba, Q. rubra) and two shrub species (Vaccinium pallidum, Vaccinium stamineum). There was no phenological census in 2012. Each species was present in 8–12 chambers, plus the chamberless control plots. Most sampled plants (95%) were seedlings less than 50 cm tall, although plants up to 1 m tall (still well within the dimensions of the chambers) were sampled if species abundance was low. For each plant, vegetative phenology of terminal buds was divided into five stages: L0, unopened buds (no activity); L1, open buds (buds have broken); L2, emerging, unfolding leaves; L3, fully expanded leaves; L4, senescing leaves (defined as at least 50% of a plant’s leaves having changed color). To better capture the continuous budburst response, plants received a score of L0/L1 (swollen buds) or L1/L2 (leaves have just emerged) when relevant and L1 was extrapolated for these individuals. Budburst date (L1) was analyzed for the four tree species, whereas date of leaf emergence (L2) was used for the two Vaccinium species due to difficulty in determining L1 on the tiny buds. Leaf emergence of shrubs will hereafter will be lumped with trees and referred to as budburst.

    Reproductive Phenological Observations: We visited the experimental site every 4 to 7 days from mid-March through October in 2011 and 2013 to observe the reproductive phenology of four herbaceous species (Hexastylis arifolia, Hieracium venosum, Thalictrum thalictroides, Tipularia discolor) and three shrub species (Chimaphila maculata, V. pallidum, V. stamineum). Flowering individuals were present in 4–7 chambers, plus the chamberless control plots (except for H. arifolia, which was not found in chamberless control plots). For each plant, reproductive phenology was divided into seven stages: F0, unopened buds; F1, open buds; F2, flowers; F3, old flowers; F4, initiated fruit; F5, expanding fruit; F6, dehisced/senesced fruit. Plants received multiple scores when relevant; for example, a plant with flowers, old flowers, and initiated fruit was scored as F2/3/4. First flowering (F2) and last flowering (defined as the last date that flowers were present on the plant; scored as F3/F4, no F2) dates were compared for all seven understory species. Flowering season length was calculated by subtracting the mean date of first flowering from the mean date of last flowering for each species in each chamber. The onset of flowering is correlated with mean temperature during the month of flowering for many temperate plants, so we used the mean air/soil temperature inside each chamber during the month(s) of flowering to compare species responses to warming.

    Global Models of Responses of Ants to Climate Change

    We applied generalized linear modeling to a global database of local ant assemblages to predict the species density of ants globally. Predictors evaluated include simple climate variables, combined temperature x precipitation variables, biogeographic region, elevation, and the interactions between select variables. Areas of the planet identified as beyond the reliable prediction ability of the model were those having climatic conditions more extreme than what was represented in the ant database.

    Ant Interactions

    At Harvard Forest we placed baits (Fancy Feast cat food) in the forest on Prospect Hill, 100 meters south of the Warm Ants chambers. We placed 12 baits 10 m apart on a 30m x 40 m grid. Every 15 minutes we recorded ants present and noted when we saw interactions among different species, i.e. ants made physical contact. We noted wether the interactions were neutral (both ants obtained bait) or aggressive (one ant obtained bait while the other fled without bait).

    Ants, Aphids, and Plants

    At Harvard Forest we transplanted 90 Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides) saplings measuring 47-103 cm in height from The Prospect Hill Tract (near maintenance garage) of Harvard Forest to 14x16 inch nursery pots filled with potting soil (Complete Planting Mix, Conrad Fafard, Inc., Aggwam, MA). They were kept in the shade and watered regularly for 18 days before the 36 with the healthiest appearance were placed in 9 existing Warm Ants chambers, including five walled chambers heated by forced air to 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5 deg C above ambient temperature, and four unheated control chambers, two walled and two unwalled. Each chamber contained four trees under different treatment conditions designated A-D. We coated the outsides of pots A and D with Tree Tanglefoot insect barrier (The Tanglefoot Company, Grand Rapids, MI) to prevent ants and other crawling arthropods from accessing the trees. We collected aphids (Chaitophorus populicola) from the same location as the aspen saplings by removing the aphid-covered stems from saplings still in the field. We separated the apterous (wingless) adults from the colonies and refrigerated them for seven days. We then transferred 30 aphids to the trees in pots A and C in each chamber by placing them on a leaf and pinning it to a leaf of the host tree. Throughout the study period we watered the trees as necessary.

    We examined three main variables: aphid colony growth, plant stress, and ant tending activity. To measure aphid colony growth, we counted the number of apterous and alate (winged) adults on each plant, after which the alates were removed from the plant to avoid aphid colonization of the control trees in the same chamber. Since aphid density was fairly homogeneous across colonies and trees, we estimated the total colony size by measuring the approximate stem length in centimeters of each plant that was covered by aphids. To encourage ants to quickly discover the aphids, we placed a centrifuge tube containing a cotton ball soaked in 30% sucrose solution at the bottom of each tree for three days after aphids were added, after which we observed ants tending aphids on the C treatment trees in every chamber. We sampled ants from each tree for later species identification. We measured ant presence on the trees by recording the number of ants on the tree and the number of ants leaving or entering the tree during a 30 second interval. The first two sets of these measurements were conducted at 7:00 A.M and at 4:00 P.M on the same day to determine whether a) the species tending the ants changed on any tree or b) the relative presence of ants of different species varied according to time of day. Neither of these phenomena was observed, so we took subsequent measurements in the late morning to early afternoon. To provide additional insight into the level of protection provided to aphids by ants beyond colony size, we noted the presence of all potential aphid predators on each tree at the time of the measurement.

    We assessed plant performance using several methods. We measured the height of each plant from base to tip along the stem at the beginning and end of the experiment to determine vertical growth. Plant stress levels were measured by visually categorizing each plant as having 1) little to no leaf damage, 2) some leaf damage, 3) significant leaf damage, or 4) severe leaf damage, based on the amount of dead and yellowed leaf area present. Additionally, we used an Opti-Sciences OS-30P Chlorophyll Fluorometer (Opti-Sciences, Inc., Hudson, NH) to assess photosynthetic ability by taking two dark adapted Fv/Fm values per leaf on three leaves per plant. Each tree had one reading taken from a leaf on its lowest branches, one from a leaf midway up the tree, and one from the new growth at the top of the tree. During the course of the experiment, we observed an unrelated species of green aphid (Myzus persicae) colonizing leaves on several plants, so we subsequently categorized the presence of these aphids as: none, very light, light, moderate, heavy, or very heavy on a 0-5 scale on each plant.

    Greenhouse Experiment

    To understand how increasing temperatures may affect ants, we performed a greenhouse experiment with Aphaenogaster rudis, a common species at Harvard Forest. We placed field-collected A. rudis nests in the Shaler greenhouse under infrared lamps with temperatures at ambient, +2 deg C, +4 deg C or +8 deg C above ambient. Field-collected ants were moved to artificial nests made of plaster paris that were attached to feeding chambers (tupperware connected to the nest via plastic tubing. We measured survival and conducted feeding trials in multiple colonies in each temperature treatment for three weeks. We gave A. rudis colonies 20 seeds daily and recorded time to discovery and total seeds removed during an 8 hour trial. Wer repeated this with Pecan Sandies cookies that we measured before and after the trials. Nests were watered daily to maintain humidity. We found that increases in temperature do affect survival and foraging activity in A. rudis. Our results show that food was found faster in warmer temperatures; however, there was also higher mortality in warmest conditions. Therefore, the ecosystem services provided by ants may be positively affected under climate change if temperatures do not exceed increases of 4 deg C, but this could be reversed at higher temperatures.

    Aphaenogaster Transcriptome

    hf113-44-ap-trans.tar contains 3 files: Trinity_cap3_uclust.fasta - Trinity de novo transcriptome assembly after filtering and clustering with cap3 and uclust, Trinity_cap3_uclust_clean.fa - Cleaned set of transcripts from DeconSeq and Trinity_cap3_uclust_cont.fa - Contaminant sequences identified by DeconSeq. hf113-45-ap-gene-exp-quant.tgz contains 24 directories, one for each species (*Ar*, *A22*) at each of 12 temperatures (every 3.5 degrees from 0 to 38.5C), that contain the output from Sailfish for gene expression quantification. For example, Ar-3 contains the expression quantification files for species *Ar* at 3.5C. Within each directory, the `quant_bias_corrected.sf` file contains the bias-corrected quantification data used in the analysis. The columns of this file are "Transcript ID", which corresponds to the transcript ID in the `Trinity_cap3_uclust_clean.fa` file, "Transcript Length" in base pairs, "Transcripts per Million", an estimate of the number of transcripts, per million observed transcripts, originating from each isoform, and "Reads per Kilobase per Million mapped Reads (RPKM), classic measure of relative transcript abundance, and is an estimate of the number of reads per kilobase of transcript (per million mapped reads) originating from each transcript.

  • Use:

    This dataset is released to the public and may be freely downloaded. Please keep the designated Contact person informed of any plans to use the dataset. Consultation or collaboration with the original investigators is strongly encouraged. Publications and data products that make use of the dataset must include proper acknowledgement. For more information on LTER Network data access and use policies, please see: http://www.lternet.edu/data/netpolicy.html.

  • Citation:

    Ellison A, Dunn R. 2009. Ants Under Climate Change at Harvard Forest and Duke Forest since 2009. Harvard Forest Data Archive: HF113.

Detailed Metadata

hf113-01: HF chamber data

  1. datetime: time stamp
  2. doy: Julian Day (unit: nominalDay)
  3. chamber: chamber number (1-12)
  4. cat1.avg: chamber air temperature 1 -average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  5. cat2.avg: chamber air temperature 2 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  6. catd.avg: air temperature in heating duct - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  7. csto1.avg: chamber soil temperature - organic 1 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  8. csto2.avg: chamber soil temperature - organic 2 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  9. csti1.avg: chamber soil temperature - inorganic 1 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  10. csti2.avg: chamber soil temperature - inorganic 2 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  11. cq.avg: chamber quantum sensor flux density - average (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  12. crh.avg: chamber relative humidity - average (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  13. csm.avg: chamber soil moisture - average (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  14. cat1.min: chamber air temperature 1 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  15. cat2.min: chamber air temperature 2 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  16. catd.min: air temperature in heating duct - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  17. csto1.min: chamber organic soil temperature 1 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  18. csti1.min: chamber inorganic soil temperature 1 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  19. csto2.min: chamber organic soil temperature 2 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  20. csti2.min: chamber inorganic soil temperature 2 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  21. cq.min: chamber quantum sensor flux density - minimum (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  22. crh.min: chamber relative humidity - minimum (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  23. csm.min: chamber soil moisture - minimum (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  24. cat1.max: chamber air temperature 1 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  25. cat2.max: chamber air temperature 2 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  26. catd.max: air temperature in heating duct - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  27. csto1.max: chamber organic soil temperature 1 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  28. cst11.max: chamber inorganic soil temperature 1 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  29. csto2.max: chamber organic soil temperature 2 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  30. csti2.max: chamber inorganic soil temperature 1 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  31. cq.max: chamber quantum sensor flux density - maximum (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  32. crh.max: chamber relative humidity - maximum (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  33. csm.max: chamber soil moisture - maximum (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)

hf113-02: HF chamber data since 2009

  1. datetime: date and time
  2. year: year
  3. decdate: day of year and decimal hour (unit: nominalDay)
  4. doy: day of year (unit: nominalDay)
  5. month: month of year
  6. week: week of year (unit: nominalWeek)
  7. dom: day of month
  8. hour: hour (unit: nominalHour)
  9. chamber: chamber number (1-12)
  10. cat1.avg: chamber air temperature 1 -average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  11. cat2.avg: chamber air temperature 2 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  12. catd.avg: air temperature in heating duct - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  13. csto1.avg: chamber soil temperature - organic 1 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  14. csti1.avg: chamber soil temperature - inorganic 1 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  15. csto2.avg: chamber soil temperature - organic 2 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  16. csti2.avg: chamber soil temperature - inorganic 2 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  17. cq.avg: chamber quantum sensor flux density - average (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  18. crh.avg: chamber relative humidity - average (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  19. csm.avg: chamber soil moisture - average (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  20. cat1.min: chamber air temperature 1 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  21. cat2.min: chamber air temperature 2 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  22. catd.min: air temperature in heating duct - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  23. csto1.min: chamber organic soil temperature 1 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  24. csti1.min: chamber inorganic soil temperature 1 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  25. csto2.min: chamber organic soil temperature 2 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  26. csti2.min: chamber inorganic soil temperature 2 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  27. cq.min: chamber quantum sensor flux density - minimum (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  28. crh.min: chamber relative humidity - minimum (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  29. csm.min: chamber soil moisture - minimum (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  30. cat1.max: chamber air temperature 1 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  31. cat2.max: chamber air temperature 2 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  32. catd.max: air temperature in heating duct - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  33. csto1.max: chamber organic soil temperature 1 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  34. csti1.max: chamber inorganic soil temperature 1 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  35. csto2.max: chamber organic soil temperature 2 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  36. csti2.max: chamber inorganic soil temperature 1 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  37. cq.max: chamber quantum sensor flux density - maximum (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  38. crh.max: chamber relative humidity - maximum (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  39. csm.max: chamber soil moisture - maximum (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)

hf113-03: HF outside data

  1. datetime: date and time
  2. year: year
  3. decdate: day of year and decimal hour (unit: nominalDay / missing value: NA)
  4. doy: day of year (unit: nominalDay / missing value: NA)
  5. month: month of year
  6. week: week of year (unit: nominalWeek / missing value: NA)
  7. dom: day of month
  8. hour: hour (unit: nominalHour / missing value: NA)
  9. ptemp.avg: average panel temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  10. ptemp.min: minimum panel temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  11. ptemp.max: maximum panel temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  12. oat1.avg: average outside air temperature - plot 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  13. osto1.avg: average outside organic soil temperature - plot 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  14. osti1.avg: average outside inorganic soil temperature - plot 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  15. oc1q.avg: average outside quantum sensor - plot 1 (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  16. oc1rh.avg: average outside relative humidity - plot 1 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  17. oc1sm.avg: average outside soil moisture - plot 1 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  18. oat1.min: minimum outside air temperature - plot 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  19. osto1.min: minimum outside organic soil temperature - plot 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  20. osti1.min: minimum outside inorganic soil temperature - plot 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  21. oc1q.min: minimum outside quantum sensor - plot 1 (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  22. oc1rh.min: minimum outside relative humidity - plot 1 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  23. oc1sm.min: minimum outside soil moisture - plot 1 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  24. oat1.max: maximum outside air temperature - plot 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  25. osto1.max: maximum outside organic soil temperature - plot 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  26. osti1.max: maximum outside inorganic soil temperature - plot 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  27. oc1q.max: maximum outside quantum sensor - plot 1 (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  28. oc1rh.max: maximum outside relative humidity - plot 1 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  29. oc1sm.max: maximum outside soil moisture - plot 1 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  30. oat2.avg: average outside air temperature - plot 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  31. osto2.avg: average outside organic soil temperature - plot 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  32. osti2.avg: average outside inorganic soil temperature - plot 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  33. oc2q.avg: average outside quantum sensor - plot 2 (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  34. oc2rh.avg: average outside relative humidity - plot 2 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  35. oc2sm.avg: average outside soil moisture - plot 2 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  36. oat2.min: minimum outside air temperature - plot 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  37. osto2.min: minimum outside organic soil temperature - plot 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  38. osti2.min: minimum outside inorganic soil temperature - plot 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  39. oc2q.min: minimum outside quantum sensor - plot 2 (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  40. oc2rh.min: minimum outside relative humidity - plot 2 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  41. oc2sm.min: minimum outside soil moisture - plot 2 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  42. oat2.max: maximum outside air temperature - plot 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  43. osto2.max: maximum outside organic soil temperature - plot 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  44. osti2.max: maximum outside inorganic soil temperature - plot 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  45. oc2q.max: maximum outside quantum sensor - plot 2 (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  46. oc2rh.max: maximum outside relative humidity - plot 2 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  47. oc2sm.max: maximum outside soil moisture - plot 2 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  48. oat3.avg: average outside air temperature - plot 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  49. osto3.avg: average outside organic soil temperature - plot 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  50. osti3.avg: average outside inorganic soil temperature - plot 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  51. oc3q.avg: average outside quantum sensor - plot 3 (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  52. oc3rh.avg: average outside relative humidity - plot 3 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  53. oc3sm.avg: average outside soil moisture - plot 3 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  54. oat3.min: minimum outside air temperature - plot 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  55. osto3.min: minimum outside organic soil temperature - plot 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  56. osti3.min: minimum outside inorganic soil temperature - plot 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  57. oc3q.min: minimum outside quantum sensor - plot 3 (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  58. oc3rh.min: minimum outside relative humidity - plot 3 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  59. oc3sm.min: minimum outside soil moisture - plot 3 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  60. oat3.max: maximum outside air temperature - plot 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  61. osto3.max: maximum outside organic soil temperature - plot 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  62. osti3.max: maximum outside inorganic soil temperature - plot 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  63. oc3q.max: maximum outside quantum sensor - plot 3 (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  64. oc3rh.max: maximum outside relative humidity - plot 3 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  65. oc3sm.max: maximum outside soil moisture - plot 3 (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)

hf113-04: HF heat flux plate data

  1. datetime: time stamp
  2. doy: Julian Day (unit: nominalDay / missing value: NA)
  3. batt.volt.avg: battery voltage - average (unit: volt / missing value: NA)
  4. shf.avg.1: chamber 2 heat flux plate 1 - average (unit: wattPerMeterSquared / missing value: NA)
  5. shf.avg.2: chamber 2 heat flux plate 2 - average (unit: wattPerMeterSquared / missing value: NA)
  6. shf.cal.1: chamber 2 soil heat flux calibration for plate 1 (W/(m^2mV)) (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  7. shf.cal.2: chamber 2 soil heat flux calibration for plate 2 (W/(m^2mV)) (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  8. t109.avg.1: chamber 2 soil temperature at 2cm - set 1 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  9. t109.avg.2: chamber 2 soil temperature at 6cm - set 1 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  10. t109.avg.3: chamber 2 soil temperature at 2cm - set 2 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  11. t109.avg.4: chamber 2 soil temperature at 6cm - set 2 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  12. vw.avg.1: chamber 2 volumetric water content - average (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  13. pa.us.avg.1: chamber 2 voltage for volumetric water content - average (unit: microsecond / missing value: NA)
  14. shf.max.1: chamber 2 heat flux plate 1 - maximum (unit: wattPerMeterSquared / missing value: NA)
  15. shf.max.2: chamber 2 heat flux plate 2 - maximum (unit: wattPerMeterSquared / missing value: NA)
  16. t109.max.1: chamber 2 soil temperature at 2cm - set 1 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  17. t109.max.2: chamber 2 soil temperature at 6cm - set 1 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  18. t109.max.3: chamber 2 soil temperature at 2cm - set 2 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  19. t109.max.4: chamber 2 soil temperature at 6cm - set 2 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  20. vw.max.1: chamber 2 volumetric water content - maximum (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  21. pa.us.max.1: chamber 2 voltage for volumetric water content - maximum (unit: microsecond / missing value: NA)
  22. shf.min.1: chamber 2 heat flux plate 1 - minimum (unit: wattPerMeterSquared / missing value: NA)
  23. shf.min.2: chamber 2 heat flux plate 2 - minimum (unit: wattPerMeterSquared / missing value: NA)
  24. t109.min.1: chamber 2 soil temperature at 2cm - set 1 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  25. t109.min.2: chamber 2 soil temperature at 6cm - set 1 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  26. t109.min.3: chamber 2 soil temperature at 2cm - set 2 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  27. t109.min.4: chamber 2 soil temperature at 6cm - set 2 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  28. vw.min.1: chamber 2 volumetric water content - minimum (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  29. pa.us.min.1: chamber 2 voltage for volumetric water content - minimum (unit: microsecond / missing value: NA)
  30. shf.avg.3: chamber 4 heat flux plate 1 - average (unit: wattPerMeterSquared / missing value: NA)
  31. shf.avg.4: chamber 4 heat flux plate 2 - average (unit: wattPerMeterSquared / missing value: NA)
  32. shf.cal.3: chamber 4 soil heat flux calibration for plate 1 (W/(m^2mV)) (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  33. shf.cal.4: chamber 4 soil heat flux calibration for plate 2 (W/(m^2mV)) (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  34. t109.avg.5: chamber 4 soil temperature at 2cm - set 1 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  35. t109.avg.6: chamber 4 soil temperature at 6cm - set 1 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  36. t109.avg.7: chamber 4 soil temperature at 2cm - set 2 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  37. t109.avg.8: chamber 4 soil temperature at 6cm - set 2 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  38. vw.avg.2: chamber 4 volumetric water content - average (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  39. pa.us.avg.2: chamber 4 voltage for volumetric water content - average (unit: microsecond / missing value: NA)
  40. shf.max.3: chamber 4 heat flux plate 1 - maximum (unit: wattPerMeterSquared / missing value: NA)
  41. shf.max.4: chamber 4 heat flux plate 2 - maximum (unit: wattPerMeterSquared / missing value: NA)
  42. t109.max.5: chamber 4 soil temperature at 2cm - set 1 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  43. t109.max.6: chamber 4 soil temperature at 6cm - set 1 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  44. t109.max.7: chamber 4 soil temperature at 2cm - set 2 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  45. t109.max.8: chamber 4 soil temperature at 6cm - set 2 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  46. vw.max.2: chamber 4 volumetric water content - maximum (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  47. pa.us.max.2: chamber 4 voltage for volumetric water content - maximum (unit: microsecond / missing value: NA)
  48. shf.min.3: chamber 4 heat flux plate 1 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  49. shf.min.4: chamber 4 heat flux plate 2 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  50. t109.min.5: chamber 4 soil temperature at 2cm - set 1 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  51. t109.min.6: chamber 4 soil temperature at 6cm - set 1 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  52. t109.min.7: chamber 4 soil temperature at 2cm - set 2 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  53. t109.min.8: chamber 4 soil temperature at 6cm - set 2 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  54. vw.min.2: chamber 4 volumetric water content - minimum (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  55. pa.us.min.2: chamber 4 voltage for volumetric water content - minimum (unit: microsecond / missing value: NA)

hf113-05: HF chamber heating

  1. cid: Campbell ID
  2. datetime: date and time
  3. year: year
  4. doy: day of year (unit: nominalDay)
  5. time: time
  6. cham: chamber (1-12)
  7. oatc: average of the 3 outside air temperature sensors (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  8. at1: air temperature #1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  9. at2: air temperature #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  10. atc: average of air temperatures #1 and #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  11. atd: air temperature in heating duct (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  12. bav: Belimo valve opening (unit: millivolt / missing value: NA)
  13. dah: difference in chamber temperature and ambient chamber temperature. Chambers 1-3 compared to chamber 4. Chambers 5, 7 and 8 compared to chamber 6. Chambers 9, 10 and 12 compared to chamber 11. (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  14. doa: difference in chamber temperature and outside air temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  15. fan: fan speed (unit: millivolt / missing value: NA)

hf113-06: HF minichamber temperature 2009-2011

  1. datetime: date and time
  2. year: year
  3. doy: day of year (unit: nominalDay)
  4. time: time (hhmm)
  5. chamber: chamber number (replicate) (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  6. treat: treatment
    • cont: un-manipulated 1 meter plots
    • cool: minichambers (pvc frames) covered with 80% shade cloth
    • warm: minichambers covered with 40 mil greenhouse sheeting
    • fcon: uncovered minichambers
  7. s.avg: average hourly soil temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  8. a.avg: average hourly air temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  9. s.max: hourly maximum soil temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  10. a.max: hourly maximum air temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  11. s.min: hourly minimum soil temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  12. a.min: hourly minimum air temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)

hf113-07: HF minichamber temperature 2011

  1. datetime: date and time
  2. year: year
  3. doy: day of year (unit: nominalDay)
  4. time: time (hhmm)
  5. chamber: chamber number (replicate) (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  6. treat: treatment
    • cont: un-manipulated 1 meter plots
    • cool: minichambers (pvc frames) covered with 80% shade cloth
    • warm: minichambers covered with 40 mil greenhouse sheeting
    • fcon: uncovered minichambers
  7. s.avg: average hourly soil temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  8. a.avg: average hourly air temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  9. s.max: hourly maximum soil temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  10. a.max: hourly maximum air temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  11. s.min: hourly minimum soil temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  12. a.min: hourly minimum air temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)

hf113-08: HF propane usage (hourly)

  1. id: Campbell ID
  2. datetime: date and time
  3. year: year
  4. doy: day of year (unit: nominalDay)
  5. hour: hour
  6. seconds: seconds
  7. ants1.high.avg: average water temperature of supply on Ants Block #1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  8. ants1.low.avg: average water temperature of return on Ants Block #1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  9. ants2.high.avg: average water temperature of supply on Ants Block #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  10. ants2.low.avg: average water temperature of return on Ants Block #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  11. ants3.high.avg: average water temperature of supply on Ants Block #3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  12. ants3.low.avg: average water temperature of return on Ants Block #3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  13. plants1.high.avg: average water temperature of supply on Plants Block #1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  14. plants1.low.avg: average water temperature of return on Plants Block #1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  15. plants2.high.avg: average water temperature of supply on Plants Block #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  16. plants2.low.avg: average water temperature of return on Plants Block #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  17. boiler.supply.avg: average water temperature of supply for the whole system (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  18. boiler.return.avg: average water temperature of return for the whole system (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  19. ants.flow.avg: average rate of water flow for all Ant Blocks (unit: gallonPerMinute / missing value: NA)
  20. plants.flow.avg: average rate of water flow for all Plant Blocks (unit: gallonPerMinute / missing value: NA)
  21. ants.btuh.avg: estimate of heat used per hour in the Ants chambers (unit: britishThermalUnit / missing value: NA)
  22. ants1.delta.avg: average difference between supply and return temperatures for Ants Block #1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  23. ants2.delta.avg: average difference between supply and return temperatures for Ants Block #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  24. ants3.delta.avg: average difference between supply and return temperatures for Ants Block #3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  25. plants.btuh.avg: estimate of heat used per hour in the Plants chambers (unit: britishThermalUnit / missing value: NA)
  26. plants1.delta.avg: average difference between supply and return temperatures for Plants Block #1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  27. plants2.delta.avg: average difference between supply and return temperatures for Plants Block #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  28. batt.volt: datalogger battery voltage (unit: volt / missing value: NA)
  29. gas.flow.cf.tot: total propane used (unit: footCubed / missing value: NA)
  30. gas.flow.gal.tot: total propane used (unit: gallon / missing value: NA)

hf113-09: HF propane usage (daily)

  1. id: Campbell ID
  2. date: date
  3. year: year
  4. doy: day of year (unit: nominalDay)
  5. hour: hour
  6. seconds: seconds
  7. ants1.high.avg: average water temperature of supply on Ants Block #1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  8. ants1.low.avg: average water temperature of return on Ants Block #1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  9. ants2.high.avg: average water temperature of supply on Ants Block #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  10. ants2.low.avg: average water temperature of return on Ants Block #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  11. ants3.high.avg: average water temperature of supply on Ants Block #3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  12. ants3.low.avg: average water temperature of return on Ants Block #3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  13. plants1.high.avg: average water temperature of supply on Plants Block #1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  14. plants1.low.avg: average water temp. of return on Plants Block #1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  15. plants2.high.avg: average water temperature of supply on Plants Block #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  16. plants2.low.avg: average water temp. of return on Plants Block #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  17. boiler.supply.avg: average water temperature of supply for the whole system (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  18. boiler.return.avg: average water temperature of return for the whole system (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  19. ants.flow.avg: average rate of water flow for all Ant Blocks (unit: gallonPerMinute / missing value: NA)
  20. plants.flow.avg: average rate of water flow for all Plant Blocks (unit: gallonPerMinute / missing value: NA)
  21. ants.btuh.avg: estimate of heat used per day in the Ants chambers (unit: britishThermalUnit / missing value: NA)
  22. ants1.delta.avg: average difference between supply and return temperatures for Ants Block #1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  23. ants2.delta.avg: average difference between supply and return temperatures for Ants Block #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  24. ants3.delta.avg: average difference between supply and return temperatures for Ants Block #3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  25. plants.btuh.avg: estimate of heat used per day in the Plants chambers (unit: britishThermalUnit / missing value: NA)
  26. plants1.delta.avg: average difference between supply and return temperatures for Plants Block #1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  27. plants2.delta.avg: average difference between supply and return temperatures for Plants Block #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  28. batt.volt: datalogger battery voltage (unit: volt / missing value: NA)
  29. gas.flow.cf.tot: total propane used (unit: footCubed / missing value: NA)
  30. gas.flow.gal.tot: total propane used (unit: gallon / missing value: NA)

hf113-10: HF electric usage

  1. startdate: start date
  2. enddate: end date
  3. read.ls: monthly reading of electric usage for the Little Shed (unit: kilowattHour / missing value: NA)
  4. read.outbs: monthly reading of electric usage outside of DOE Big Shed (unit: kilowattHour / missing value: NA)
  5. read.inbs.plants: monthly reading of electric usage inside of DOE Big Shed for Hot Plants componant (unit: kilowattHour / missing value: NA)
  6. read.inbs.ants: monthly reading of electric usage inside of DOE Big Shed for Warm Ants componant (unit: kilowattHour / missing value: NA)
  7. use.ls: monthly energy usage for the Little Shed (unit: kilowattHour / missing value: NA)
  8. use.outbs: monthly energy usage outside of DOE Big Shed (unit: kilowattHour / missing value: NA)
  9. use.inbs.plants: monthly energy usage inside of DOE Big Shed for Hot Plants componant (unit: kilowattHour / missing value: NA)
  10. use.inbs.ants: monthly energy usage inside of DOE Big Shed for Warm Ants componant (unit: kilowattHour / missing value: NA)
  11. use.bs.shared: energy usage outside DOE Big Shed less Inside Plants and Ants (unit: kilowattHour / missing value: NA)

hf113-11: DF chamber data

  1. datetime: date and time
  2. year: year
  3. decdate: day of year and decimal hour (unit: nominalDay)
  4. doy: day of year (unit: nominalDay)
  5. month: month of year
  6. week: week of year (unit: nominalWeek)
  7. dom: day of month
  8. hour: hour (unit: nominalHour)
  9. chamber: chamber number (1-12)
  10. cat1.avg: chamber air temperature 1 -average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  11. cat2.avg: chamber air temperature 2 -average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  12. cat3.avg: chamber air temperature 3 -average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  13. csto1.avg: chamber soil temperature - organic 1 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  14. csti1.avg: chamber soil temperature - inorganic 1 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  15. csto2.avg: chamber soil temperature - organic 2 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  16. csti2.avg: chamber soil temperature - inorganic 2 - average (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  17. cq.avg: chamber quantum sensor flux density - average (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  18. crh.avg: chamber relative humidity - average (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  19. csm.avg: chamber soil moisture - average (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  20. cat1.min: chamber air temperature 1 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  21. cat2.min: chamber air temperature 2 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  22. cat3.min: chamber air temperature 3 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  23. csto1.min: chamber organic soil temperature 1 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  24. csti1.min: chamber inorganic soil temperature 1 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  25. csto2.min: chamber organic soil temperature 2 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  26. csti2.min: chamber inorganic soil temperature 2 - minimum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  27. cq.min: chamber quantum sensor flux density - minimum (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  28. crh.min: chamber relative humidity - minimum (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  29. csm.min: chamber soil moisture - minimum (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  30. cat1.max: chamber air temperature 1 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  31. cat2.max: chamber air temperature 2 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  32. cat3.max: chamber air temperature 3 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  33. csto1.max: chamber organic soil temperature 1 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  34. csti1.max: chamber inorganic soil temperature 1 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  35. csto2.max: chamber organic soil temperature 2 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  36. csti2.max: chamber inorganic soil temperature 2 - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  37. cq.max: chamber quantum sensor flux density - maximum (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  38. crh.max: chamber relative humidity - maximum (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  39. csm.max: chamber soil moisture - maximum (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)

hf113-12: DF outside data

  1. datetime: date and time
  2. year: year
  3. decdate: day of year and decimal hour (unit: nominalDay)
  4. doy: day of year (unit: nominalDay)
  5. month: month of year
  6. week: week of year (unit: nominalWeek)
  7. dom: day of month
  8. hour: hour (unit: nominalHour)
  9. ptemp1.avg: average panel temperature 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  10. ptemp1.min: minimum panel temperature 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  11. ptemp1.max: maximum panel temperature 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  12. ptemp2.avg: average panel temperature 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  13. ptemp2.min: minimum panel temperature 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  14. ptemp2.max: maximum panel temperature 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  15. oat1.avg: average outside air temperature - control 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  16. osto1.avg: average outside organic soil temperature - control 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  17. osti1.avg: average outside inorganic soil temperature - control 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  18. oat1.min: minimum outside air temperature - control 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  19. osto1.min: minimum outside organic soil temperature - control 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  20. osti1.min: minimum outside inorganic soil temperature - control 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  21. oat1.max: maximum outside air temperature - control 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  22. osto1.max: maximum outside organic soil temperature - control 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  23. osti1.max: maximum outside inorganic soil temperature - control 1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  24. oat2.avg: average outside air temperature - control 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  25. osto2.avg: average outside organic soil temperature - control 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  26. osti2.avg: average outside inorganic soil temperature - control 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  27. oat2.min: minimum outside air temperature - control 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  28. osto2.min: minimum outside organic soil temperature - control 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  29. osti2.min: minimum outside inorganic soil temperature - control 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  30. oat2.max: maximum outside air temperature - control 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  31. osto2.max: maximum outside organic soil temperature - control 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  32. osti2.max: maximum outside inorganic soil temperature - control 2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  33. oat3.avg: average outside air temperature - control 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  34. osto3.avg: average outside organic soil temperature - control 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  35. osti3.avg: average outside inorganic soil temperature - control 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  36. oat3.min: minimum outside air temperature - control 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  37. osto3.min: minimum outside organic soil temperature - control 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  38. osti3.min: minimum outside inorganic soil temperature - control 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  39. oat3.max: maximum outside air temperature - control 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  40. osto3.max: maximum outside organic soil temperature - control 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  41. osti3.max: maximum outside inorganic soil temperature - control 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)

hf113-13: DF chamber heating

  1. cid: Campbell ID
  2. datetime: date and time
  3. year: year
  4. doy: day of year (unit: nominalDay)
  5. time: time (hhmm)
  6. cham: chamber (1-12)
  7. loatc: lower shed outside air temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  8. uoatc: upper shed outside airtemperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  9. at1: air temperature #1 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  10. at2: air temperature #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  11. atc: average of air temperatures #1 and #2 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  12. atd: air temperature in heating duct (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  13. bav: Belimo valve opening (unit: millivolt / missing value: NA)
  14. dah: difference in chamber temperature and ambient chamber temperature. Chambers 1-3 compared to chamber 4. Chambers 5, 7 and 8 compared to chamber 6. Chambers 9, 10 and 12 compared to chamber 11. (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  15. doa: difference in chamber temperature and outside air temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  16. fan: fan speed (unit: millivolt / missing value: NA)

hf113-14: DF minichamber temperature

  1. datetime: date and time
  2. date: date
  3. time: time
  4. minichamber: minichamber number (replicate)
  5. treatment: treatment
    • Control: minichambers with no temperature manipulation
    • Cooling: minichambers covered with shade cloth
    • Warming: minichambers with greenhouse sheeting
  6. temperature: bihourly air temperature recorded beneath minichambers (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)

hf113-15: DF ant foraging distance

  1. id: unique ant identifier
  2. chamber: chamber number
  3. treatment: target temperature delta (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  4. nest: unique nest number
  5. distance: straight distance between bait and nest to which ant returned (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  6. bait: unique bait number
  7. genus: ant genus
  8. species: ant species
  9. gen.sp: code consisting of first two letters of genus and species

hf113-16: DF ant nestbox data

  1. date: date
  2. year: year that box was checked
  3. month: month that box was checked
  4. day: day that box was checked
  5. doy: julian day that box was checked (unit: nominalDay)
  6. id: person who checked the box
    • LMN: Lauren M. Nichols
  7. site: site
    • DF: Duke Forest
    • HF: Harvard Forest
  8. chamber: chamber number
  9. nest: unique nest number
  10. under: whether or not this data entry is for a check under (rather than inside) the nest box
    • N: not under
    • Y: under
  11. genus: ant genus
  12. species: ant species
  13. u.sp: unique species code consisting of first two letters of genus and species
  14. number: estimated number observed
  15. n.cat: estimated number observed (as a number (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  16. brood: whether or not brood was observed
    • N: not observed
    • Y: observed
  17. n.brood: estimated number of brood observed
  18. alates: whether or not alates were observed
    • N: not observed
    • Y: observed
  19. notes: notes

hf113-17: HF wind and rain

  1. datetime: date and time
  2. year: year
  3. doy: day of year (unit: nominalDay)
  4. time: time
  5. rain.mm.tot: rain total for period (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  6. ws.ms.s.wvt: mean horizontal wind speed (unit: metersPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  7. ws.ms.u.wvt: resultant mean horizontal wind speed (unit: metersPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  8. winddir.du.wvt: resultant mean wind direction (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  9. winddir.sd1.wvt: standard deviation of wind direction (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  10. wndspd.max: wind speed maximum (unit: metersPerSecond / missing value: NA)

hf113-18: HF chamber ants

  1. sampling.id: arbitrary integer from 1 to n, where n is the number of monthly pitfall samples since the chambers were turned on at Harvard Forest (September 25, 2009). Pitfall and chamber environmental data are aligned using the Sampling ID.
  2. site: site name
    • DF: Duke Forest
    • HF: Harvard Forest
  3. date: date
  4. month: month
  5. day: day
  6. year: year
  7. doy: Julian day, an integer from 1 to 365 (366 for leap years). Yields a unique identifier of the calendar day for each year (unit: nominalDay)
  8. cham: integer from 1 to 15 corresponding with the Chamber number. Chambers 13, 14, and 15 are the Chamberless Controls at both sites. Chambers 1 through 12 represent different warming regimes across Duke and Harvard Forests.
  9. subs: levels “A”, “B”, “C”, and “D” corresponding with the 4 pitfall traps per chamber.
  10. treat: heating treatment. Binary factor.
    • Pre-treat: samples occurred before the chambers were turned on
    • Treat: samples occurred after the chambers were turned on
  11. warming: warming treatment. Factor with three levels.
    • Heated: Target_Delta > 0
    • Chamber Control: Target_Delta = 0, and Cham is < 13
    • Chamberless Control: Target_Delta = 0, and Cham is > 12
  12. target.delta: the target degrees Celsius above ambient (given chamber temperature relative to the outside temperature). Values are one of the following: 0, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.4, 5, 5.5. Note that both heated control chambers (that blow ambient air into the chamber) and chamberless control chambers (that do not blow air into the chamber and do not have walls) are given a value of 0. (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  13. method: ant collection technique
    • Pitfall: each chamber/plot has 4 pitfall traps installed
    • Winkler: surface little collected from 2 pooled .25m ×.25m quadrats on opposite sides of each chamber placement of 4 baits/chamber
  14. id: investigator who identified the specimens
    • AME: Aaron M. Ellison
    • BBD: Bernice B. DeMarco
    • GWB: Grace W. Barber
    • IDT: Israel Del Toro
    • KID: Katie I. Davis
    • MAC: Matt A. Cross
    • MRP: Michael R. Pelini
    • SLP: Shannon L. Pelini
    • NM;MM;KT: Natasha Manyak, Michael Marquis, Kevin Towle
  15. genus: if known, the Genus name. If unknown, “Unknown”
  16. species: if known, the Species name. If unknown, specimens are assigned a unique morphotype of the form, “sp_DFmorph1”.
  17. n: number of individuals collected (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  18. unique.id: identifier number unique to archived specimen vial
  19. caste: caste
    • Worker: worker
    • Queen: queen
    • Male: male
  20. notes: notes
  21. pinned: number of individuals pinned from archived sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)

hf113-19: HF minichamber ants

  1. date: date
  2. cham: chamber replicate number
  3. treat: treatment
    • cont: un-manipulated 1 meter plots
    • cool: minichambers (pvc frames) covered with 80% shade cloth
    • warm: minichambers covered with 40 mil greenhouse sheeting
    • fcon: uncovered minichambers
  4. method: ant sampling method
    • Winkler: ants were extracted from soil beneath minichambers via Winkler sac
    • Nest Box: ants inhabiting artifical nest boxes beneath chamber were counted
  5. id: investigator who identified the specimens
    • SLP: Shannon L. Pelini
    • GWB: Grace W. Barber
  6. id.date: date the identification was made
  7. genus: taxonomic genus
  8. species: taxonomic species
  9. code: six or seven character species code (= first 3 letters of genus + first 3 letters of species + number when the previous six characters are not unique)
  10. caste: caste (this is only documented for ants resorted in 2013)
    • Worker: worker
    • Queen: queen
  11. n: number of individuals collected (unit: number / missing value: NA)

hf113-20: HF minichamber foraging

  1. date: date
  2. sam.per: sample period, 30 minute intervals in which baits remaining in each petri dish were counted (unit: minute / missing value: NA)
  3. cham: minichamber replicate number
  4. treat: treatment
    • cont: un-manipulated 1 meter plots
    • cool: minichambers (pvc frames) covered with 80% shade cloth
    • warm: minichambers covered with 40 mil greenhouse sheeting
    • fcon: uncovered minichambers
  5. bait: material used to quantify ant foraging activity. For each baiting trial, 10 units of bait were placed in a perti dish beneath each minichamber.
    • Seeds: Acarum canadense to measure seed dispersal
    • Sugar: Demerara sugar grains to measure nectivary
    • Termites: living Reticulatermes flavipes to measure predation
    • Meal worms: dead Tenebrio molitor to measure scavenging
    • Oats: Avena sativa L.to measure granivory
  6. temp: air temperature at time of baiting (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  7. units.rem: units of bait remaining in each petri dish were counted (unit: number / missing value: NA)

hf113-21: DF chamber ants

  1. sampling.id: arbitrary integer from 1 to n, where n is the number of monthly pitfall samples since the chambers were turned on at Harvard Forest (September 25, 2009). Pitfall and chamber environmental data are aligned using the Sampling ID.
  2. site: site name
    • DF: Duke Forest
    • HF: Harvard Forest
  3. date: date
  4. month: month
  5. day: day
  6. year: year
  7. doy: Julian day, an integer from 1 to 365 (366 for leap years). Yields a unique identifier of the calendar day for each year. (unit: nominalDay)
  8. cham: integer from 1 to 15 corresponding with the Chamber number. Chambers 13, 14, and 15 are the Chamberless Controls at both sites. Chambers 1 through 12 represent different warming regimes across Duke and Harvard Forests.
  9. subs: levels “A”, “B”, “C”, and “D” corresponding with the 4 pitfall traps per chamber.
  10. treat: heating treatment. Binary factor.
    • Pre-treat: samples occurred before the chambers were turned on
    • Treat: samples occurred after the chambers were turned ont
  11. method: ant collection technique
    • Pitfall: each chamber/plot has 4 pitfall traps installed
    • Baiting: Pecan Sandies cookies were used to attract ants. Ants were counted 1 hour after placement of 4 baits/chamber.
  12. id: investigator who identified the specimens
  13. genus: if known, the Genus name. If unknown, “Unknown”.
  14. species: if known, the Species name. If unknown, specimens are assigned a unique morphotype of the form, “sp_DFmorph1”.
  15. n: number of individuals collected (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  16. caste: caste
    • Worker: worker
    • Queen: queen
    • Alate: alate
    • Male: male
  17. notes: notes
  18. pinned: number of ants pinned for vouchering (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  19. warming: warming treatment. Factor with three levels.
    • Heated: Target_Delta > 0
    • Chamber Control: Target_Delta = 0, and Cham is < 13
    • Chamberless Control: Target_Delta = 0, and Cham is > 12
  20. target.delta: the target degrees Celsius above ambient (given chamber temperature relative to the outside temperature). Values are one of the following: 0, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 4.4, 5, 5.5. Note that both heated control chambers (that blow ambient air into the chamber) and chamberless control chambers (that do not blow air into the chamber and do not have walls) are given a value of 0. (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)

hf113-22: DF minichamber ants

  1. date: date
  2. cham: minichamber replicate number
  3. treat: treatment
    • cont: un-manipulated 1 meter plots
    • cool: minichambers (pvc frames) covered with 80% shade cloth
    • warm: minichambers covered with 40 mil greenhouse sheeting
    • fcon: uncovered minichambers
  4. method: ant sampling method
    • Winkler: ants were extracted from soil beneath minichambers via Winkler sac
    • Nest Box: ants inhabiting artifical nest boxes beneath chamber were counted
  5. species: taxonomic Species
  6. n: number of individuals collected (unit: number / missing value: NA)

hf113-23: DF minichamber foraging

  1. date: date
  2. cham: minichamber replicate number
  3. treat: treatment
    • cont: un-manipulated 1 meter plots
    • cool: minichambers (pvc frames) covered with 80% shade cloth
    • warm: minichambers covered with 40 mil greenhouse sheeting
    • fcon: uncovered minichambers
  4. bait: bait material used to quantify ant foraging activity. For each baiting trial, 10 units of bait were placed in a perti dish beneath each minichamber.
    • Seeds: Acarum canadense to measure seed dispersal
    • Sugar: Demerara sugar grains to measure nectivary
    • Live Termites: living Reticulatermes flavipes to measure predation
    • DeadTermites: dead Reticulatermes flavipes to measure scavenging
    • Oats: Avena sativa L.to measure granivory
  5. sam.per: 30 minute intervals in which baits remaining in each petri dish were counted (unit: minute / missing value: NA)
  6. temp: temperature at time of baiting (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  7. units.rem: units of bait remaining in each petri dish were counted (unit: number / missing value: NA)

hf113-24: HF ant thermal tolerance

  1. subfamily: taxonomic Subfamily
  2. species: taxonomic Species
  3. thermal.tolerance: temperature at which ant lost muscle coordination or died (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  4. length: body length, quantified as Weber's length (see Brown WL (1953) Revisionary studies in the ant tribe Dacetini. Am Midl Nat 50:1-137) (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  5. net.water.loss: grams water lost during thermal tolerance assay (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  6. per.water.ldoss: percent water lost during thermal tolerance assay (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  7. twc: total water content, calculated as (( Live mass - Dry mass ) × 100 ) / Live mass (see Schilman PE, Lighton JRB, Holway DA (2007) Water balance in the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) compared with five common native ant species from southern California. Physiol Entomol 32 (1):1-7.) (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  8. cwc: critical water content, calculated as (( Mass at death - Dry Mass ) × 100 ) / Live mass (see Schilman PE, Lighton JRB, Holway DA (2007) Water balance in the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) compared with five common native ant species from southern California. Physiol Entomol 32 (1):1-7. (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  9. habitat.type: habitat ants collected from

hf113-25: HF woody plants

  1. date: date
  2. chamber: chamber replicate number
  3. quadrat: quadrat replicate number
  4. species: plant taxanomic Species
  5. common.name: plant common name
  6. plant: plant ID number within chamber
  7. leaves: number of leaves on plant (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  8. height: stem height from ground to highest bud (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  9. straight.height: stem height, with plant held perpendicular from ground, from ground to highest bud (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  10. diameter: maximum stem diameter in centimeters
  11. pathogen.damage: number of leaves with pathogen damage (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. herbivory: number of leaves with evidence of herbivory (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  13. mechanical.damage: number of leaves with mechanical damage (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  14. notes: notes

hf113-26: HF percent cover

  1. date: date
  2. chamber: chamber replicate number
  3. species: plant taxonomic Species
  4. common.name: plant common name
  5. cover: cover category, % species covers the quadrat
    • 1: less than 5%
    • 2: 5-20%
    • 3: 21-40%
    • 4: 41-60%
    • 5: 61-80%
    • 6: 81-100%

hf113-27: HF plant phenology

  1. date: date
  2. chamber: chamber replicate number
  3. plant: plant ID number within chamber
  4. species: plant taxonomic Species
  5. common.name: plant common name
  6. phenology: phenological state of plant
    • F1: 2/3 or more of leaves are green
    • F2: more than 1/3 of leaves no longer green (senesced)
    • F3: 2/3 or more of leaves have dropped from plant
    • S1: No bud expansion or color change
    • S2: buds elongating and turning green, but no leaves emerging
    • S3: leaf primordial seen elongating from bud
    • S4: folded leaves emerging from buds
    • S5: leaves unfolded but not fully grown and hardened
    • S6: leaves hardened
  7. notes: notes

hf113-28: DF budburst

  1. year: year
  2. species: species code
    • ACRU: Acer rubrum
    • CATO: Carya tomentosa
    • QUAL: Quercus alba
    • QURU: Quercus rubra
    • VAPA: Vaccinium pallidum
    • VAST: Vaccinium stamineum
  3. chamber: 1-12 are heated and control chambers; OUT is chamberless control chamber
  4. delta.airt: temperature difference between heated chambers and control chambers from 15 February to 15 March (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  5. feb15.mar15.airt: chamber temperature from 15 February to 15 March (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  6. feb15.airt.gdd: growing degree days accumulated above 5 degrees C since 15 February until budburst (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  7. doy.budburst: day of year of budburst (unit: nominalDay)
  8. date: date of budburst

hf113-29: DF flowering

  1. year: year
  2. species: species code
    • HEAR: Hexastylis arifolia
    • HIVE: Hieracium venosum
    • THTH: Thalictrum thalictroides
    • TIDI: Tipularia discolor
    • CHMA: Chimaphila maculate
    • VAPA: Vaccinium pallidum
    • VAST: Vaccinium stamineum
  3. chamber: 1-12 are heated and control chambers; OUT is chamberless control chamber
  4. delta.airt: temperature difference between heated chambers and control chambers from 15 February to 15 March (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  5. monthly.airt: mean chamber temperature for flowering month (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  6. doy.flower: day of year of first flower (unit: nominalDay)
  7. date: date of first flower

hf113-30: DF tipularia

  1. year: year
  2. chamber: 1-12 are heated and control chambers; OUT is chamberless control chamber
  3. delta.julyt: mean chamber July temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  4. flower.doy: day of year of first flower (unit: nominalDay / missing value: NA)
  5. flower.loss.doy: day of year of last flower (unit: nominalDay / missing value: NA)
  6. fruit.doy: day of year of first fruit (unit: nominalDay / missing value: NA)
  7. seed.doy: day of year of first seed (unit: nominalDay / missing value: NA)

hf113-31: HF spider thermal tolerance

  1. family: name of the Family of the Species
  2. species: species name
  3. thermal.tolerance: degrees in Celsius when the spider died (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  4. length: the tibia one length of the spider (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  5. sex: sex of spider
    • immature: the genitalia are undiferentiate
    • female: mature female
    • male: mature male
  6. habitat.type: habitat type
    • Forest: forest habitat

hf113-32: HF chamber spiders

  1. date: date
  2. cham: chamber replicate number
  3. subs: subsample within each chamber
  4. treat: heating treatment
    • pre-treat: prior to September 25, 2009, no chambers were heated
    • heated: chambers that receive heat
    • cham cont: control chambers, chambers that do not receive heat
    • chamberless: control plots, plots that have no chambers or heat
  5. warming: temperature above outside reference station (3) averages (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  6. method: the method used to collected spiders
    • Pitfall: pitfall trap
  7. id: the person who identified spiders
  8. genus: the Genus of the Species
  9. species: taxonomic Species. NA means that those animals weren't identified at Species level because they are immature.
  10. n: number of individuals collected (unit: number / missing value: NA)

hf113-33: HF minichamber spiders

  1. date: date
  2. cham: chamber replicate number
  3. treat: heating treatment
    • fcon: uncovered minichambers
    • warm: minichambers covered with 40 mil greenhouse sheeting
    • cool: minichambers (pvc frames) covered with 80% shade cloth
    • cont: un-manipulated 1 meter plots
  4. method: method used to collected spiders
    • Pitfall: pitfall trap
  5. genus: Genus of the Species
  6. species: taxonomic Species. NA means that those animals weren't identified at Species level because they are immature.
  7. n: number of individuals collected (unit: number / missing value: NA)

hf113-34: HF spider barcode analysis

  1. project.code: project code
  2. process.id: process ID
  3. sample.id: sample ID
  4. field.num: field number
  5. catalog.num: catalog number
  6. collection.code: collection code
  7. institution.storing: institution storing sample
  8. coi.5p.seq.length: COI-5P sequence length
  9. coi.5p.trace.count: COI-5P trace count (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  10. image.count: image count (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  11. barcode.compl: barcode compliant
    • No: barcode not compliant
    • Yes: barcode compliant
  12. phylum: phylum
  13. class: class
  14. order: order
  15. family: family
  16. genus: genus
  17. species: species
  18. sex: sex
    • NA: unknown
    • F: female
    • M: male
  19. repro: reproduction
    • S: s
  20. life.stage: life stage
    • I: i
    • A: a
  21. identifier: identifier
  22. identifier.email: identifier email
  23. collect.date: collection date
  24. collectors: collectors
  25. country.ocean: country where sample was collected
  26. province: province where sample was collected
  27. region: region where sample was collected
  28. sector: sector where sample was collected
  29. exact.site: exact site where sample was collected
  30. lat: latitiude (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  31. lon: longitude (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  32. elev: elevation (unit: meter / missing value: NA)

hf113-35: global ants

  1. ref: citation for the original study
  2. grid.size: grid size of original study (unit: kilometer / missing value: NA)
  3. long: longitude, geographic coordinates of locality (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  4. lat: latitude, geographic coordinates of locality (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  5. realm: biogeographic realm of the locality
  6. spec.rich: number of species in the site(s) (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  7. sample.ind: sampling index. types of sampling done in original study; P = pitfall, B = bait, L = litter/winkler, S = soil, H = hand collecting
  8. elevation: SRTM elevation of locality (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  9. number: number of individual samples (e.g., pitfalls, winkler sacs) (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  10. area: estimated area sampled (unit: squareMeter / missing value: NA)
  11. condition: assessment of habitat condition
    • 1: intact
    • 2: partially disturbed (physically resembles intact ecosystem)
  12. aridity: aridity index from Trabucco and Zomer (2009)
  13. pet: PET index from Trabucco and Zomer (2009)
  14. bio1: annual mean temperature in degrees celsius times 10. (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  15. bio2: mean diurnal range (mean of monthly (max temp - min temp)) in degrees celsius times 10. (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  16. bio3: Isothermality (BIO2/BIO7) (* 100) (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  17. bio4: temperature seasonality (degrees celsius times 10) (standard deviation *100) (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  18. bio5: maximum temperature of warmest month in degrees celsius times 10. (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  19. bio6: minimum temperature of coldest month in degrees celsius times 10. (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  20. bio7: temperature annual range (BIO5-BIO6) in degrees celsius times 10. (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  21. bio8: mean temperature of wettest quarter in celsius times 10. (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  22. bio9: mean temperature of driest quarter in celsius times 10. (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  23. bio10: mean temperature of warmest quarter in celsius times 10. (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  24. bio11: mean temperature of coldest quarter in celsius times 10. (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  25. bio12: annual precipitation (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  26. bio13: precipitation of wettest month (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  27. bio14: precipitation of driest month (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  28. bio15: precipitation seasonality (coefficient of variation) (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  29. bio16: precipitation of wettest quarter (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  30. bio17: precipitation of driest quarter (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  31. bio18: precipitation of warmest quarter (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)
  32. bio19: precipitation of coldest quarter (unit: millimeter / missing value: NA)

hf113-36: global ants thermal tolerance

  1. accession: unique accession number for each ant colony tested
  2. species: Latin binomial species name
  3. ctmax: critical thermal maximum, colony mean (minimum sample = 8 workers for data source = “empirical”; see literature references for details of other data sources) (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  4. location: description of the colony collection location
  5. latitude: latitude in decimal degrees (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  6. longitude: longitude in decimal degrees (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  7. elevation: elevation (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  8. nest.site: nest site
    • 1: on/in ground
    • 2: logs, herbaceous or small woody plants
    • 3: trunks of trees (subcanopy)
    • 4: tops of trees, arboreal (canopy)
  9. habitat.cover: habitat cover
    • 1: open
    • 2: forest edges or species which regularly occupy both open and/or forested habitats;
    • 3: forested
  10. forage.underground: farging underground
    • 0: no
    • 1: yes
  11. data.source: empirical or a literature citation
  12. derivative.data.source: refers to the same data as listed in “Data source”, but republished in a secondary outlet

hf113-37: HF ant interactions

  1. datetime: date and time
  2. date: date
  3. bait: bait station number on Prospect Hill Tract
  4. time: time
  5. temp1: temperature taken instantaneously w/laser temperature gun at one location on 3 x 5 notecard w/bait (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  6. temp2: temperature taken instantaneously w/laser temperature gun at a second location on 3 x 5 notecard w/bait (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  7. temp3: temperature taken instantaneously w/laser temperature gun at a third location on 3 x 5 notecard w/bait (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  8. mean.temp: mean of temps 1, 2 & 3 (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  9. spp1: ant species present at bait
  10. spp2: additional ant species observed at bait, if applicable
  11. n1: number of individuals of Spp1 (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. n2: number of individuals of Spp2 (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  13. aggressor: species of ant that defended bait, causing other species to flee. "N" indicates a neutral interaction where both species removed bait

hf113-38: HF greenhouse warming

  1. nest: nest replicate number
  2. treatment: amount of warming about ambient (control)
    • Ambient: ambient (control)
    • 2 deg C warming: 2 degrees Celcius warming
    • 4 deg C warming: 4 degrees Celcius warming
    • 8 deg C warming: 6 degrees Celcius warming
  3. date.collected: date of ant nest collection
  4. experiment.date: date ant nest was placed in warming treatment
  5. initial.adults: number of adult workers in nest at start of experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  6. intial.brood: number of brood (eggs, larvae, pupae) in nest at start of experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  7. final.adults: number of adults surviving to end of experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  8. seeds.removed: number of seeds removed during an 8 hour period (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  9. seeds.discovery.time: time at which ants first found and removed bait (unit: minute / missing value: NA)
  10. cookie.mean.temp: average of two temperature measurements taken with a laser temperature probe (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  11. cookie.consumption: proportion of weight removed for a cookie placed in the food chamber (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)

hf113-39: HF warm ants, aphids and plants

  1. date: date that each measurement was taken
  2. plant: chamber number and treatment letter designation of the plant
  3. treatment: treatment
    • aphids added; ants excluded: plant was innoculated with 30 apterous adult Chaitophorus populicola aphids and tanglefoot was added to plant pot to exclude ants
    • ants included: plant was not innoculated with aphids and tanglefoot was not added to plant pot
    • aphids added; ants included: plant was innoculated with 30 apterous adult Chaitophorus populicola aphids and tanglefoot was not added to plant pot
    • ants excluded: plant was not innoculated with aphids and tanglefoot was added to plant pot to exclude ants
  4. adults: number of apterous Chaitophorus populicola adults on the plant (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  5. stem.coverage: cm of stem covered in Chaitophorus populicola aphids (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  6. alates: number of Chaitophorus populicola alates on the plant (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  7. plant.health: amount of leaf damage on the plant
    • 1: little to no damage
    • 2: some damage
    • 3: significant damage
    • 4: heavy damage
  8. green.aphids: level of Myzus persicae aphid presence on the plant
    • 0: no aphids
    • 1: very light
    • 2: light
    • 3: moderate
    • 4: heavy
    • 5: very heavy
  9. ant.genus: ant Genus
  10. ants.present: number of ants present on the plant at the time of observation (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  11. count.30: number of ants entering or leaving the plant over a 30 sec period (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. predators.observed: list of all potential aphid predators observed on the plant
  13. plant.height: length of the plant (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  14. fv.fm1a: first fv/fm value from the first leaf on a plant (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  15. fv.fm1b: second fv/fm value from the first leaf on a plant (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  16. fv.fm2a: first fv/fm value from the second leaf on a plant (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  17. fv.fm2b: second fv/fm value from the second leaf on a plant (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)

hf113-40: HF non-ant invertebrates

  1. date.processed: date that the collected samples were identified
  2. experiment: name of project
  3. current.location: where the vials are currently located
    • BGSU: Bowling Green State University
  4. date: date the samples were collected in the field
  5. location: research site
    • HF: Harvard Forest
  6. chamber: chamber number
  7. sample: subsample from the chamber number. There are four subsamples: A,B,C,D
  8. subsample: any other identification tag found in the vial
  9. class: taxonomic class
  10. subclass: taxonomic subclass
  11. order: taxonomic order
  12. suborder: taxonomic suborder
  13. superfamily: taxonomic superfamily
  14. family: taxonomic family
  15. genus: taxonomic genus
  16. species: taxonomic species
  17. common.name: common name of sample
  18. larvae: if sample was in the larval stage
  19. other.juv: if sample is classified as a juvenile
  20. number: quantity of specimens in sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  21. unique.id: unique number labeling each sample
  22. notes: any other information not included in other fields

hf113-41: Aphaenogaster transcriptome annotation table

  • Compression: none
  • Format: tab delimited text
  • Type: text file

hf113-42: R code and associated csv files to accompany Diamond et al. 2012 paper

  • Compression: zip
  • Format: zip
  • Type: zip

hf113-43: R code and associated csv files to accompany Diamond et al. 2013 paper

  • Compression: zip
  • Format: zip
  • Type: zip

hf113-44: Aphaenogaster transcriptome assembly

  • Compression: zip
  • Format: tar
  • Type: tar

hf113-45: Aphaenogaster gene expression quantification

  • Compression: zip
  • Format: tgz
  • Type: tgz

hf113-46: R code and associated csv files to accompany Diamond et al. 2016 paper

  • Compression: zip
  • Format: zip
  • Type: zip