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Harvard Forest Data Archive

HF320

Legacies of Historical Clearcutting, Wind and Salvage Logging in Pisgah State Forest 2016

Related Publications

Data

Overview

  • Lead: Emma Sass, Anthony D'Amato, David Foster
  • Investigators: Walter Branch, Al Cline, R. K. Daley, Richard Fisher, T. Lotti
  • Contact: Emma Sass
  • Start date: 2016
  • End date: 2016
  • Status: completed
  • Location: Pisgah State Forest (NH)
  • Latitude: +42.83
  • Longitude: -72.44
  • Elevation: 215 to 400 meter
  • Taxa: Acer pensylvanicum (striped maple), Acer rubrum (red maple), Acer saccharum (sugar maple), Betula spp. (birch species), Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch), Betula lenta (black birch), Betula papyrifera (paper birch), Castanea dentate (American chestnut), Fagus grandifolia (American beech), Ostyra virginiana (American hophornbeam), Pinus resinosa (red pine), Pinus strobus (white pine), Picea rubens (red spruce), Populus spp. (poplar species), Prunus pensylvanica (fire cherry), Prunus serotina (black cherry), Quercus spp. (oak species), Quercus alba (white oak), Quercus prinus (chestnut oak), Quercus rubra (red oak), Tilia americana (American linden), Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
  • Release date: 2019
  • Revisions:
  • EML file: knb-lter-hfr.320.1
  • DOI: digital object identifier
  • Related links:
  • Study type: long-term measurement
  • Research topic: conservation and management; historical and retrospective studies
  • LTER core area: disturbance
  • Keywords: community composition, hemlock, hurricanes, old growth forests, pine, stand structure, timber harvesting
  • Abstract:

    Disturbance events affect forest composition and structure across a range of spatial and temporal scales, and subsequent forest development may differ after natural, anthropogenic, or compound disturbances. Following large, natural disturbances, salvage logging is a common and often controversial management practice in many regions of the globe. Yet, while the short-term impacts of salvage logging have been studied in many systems, the long-term effects remain unclear. We capitalized on over eighty years of data following an old-growth Tsuga canadensis-Pinus strobus forest in southwestern New Hampshire, USA after the 1938 hurricane, which severely damaged forests across much of New England. To our knowledge, this study provides the longest evaluation of salvage logging impacts, and it highlights developmental trajectories for Tsuga canadensis-Pinus strobus forests under a variety of disturbance histories. Specifically, we examined development from an old-growth condition in 1930 through 2016 across three different disturbance histories: (1) clearcut logging prior to the 1938 hurricane with some subsequent damage by the hurricane (“logged”), (2) severe damage from the 1938 hurricane (“hurricane”), and (3) severe damage from the hurricane followed by salvage logging (“salvaged”). At each site, 2-4 0.05 ha plots were established, and DBH, species, and distance and direction from plot center were recorded for each tree over 10 cm DBH. Stumps and snags were also measured. From the site center, coarse woody material was measured along three 34-m transects using the line-intersect method. Finally, a 1-ha plot was established around the site center, within which all pit-and-mound structures and stumps were recorded as well as boles associated with these structures.

  • Methods:

    In the summer of 2016, study sites were located in the approximate position of Branch et al.’s (1930) plots to determine the change over time. The Harvard Tract was severely damaged by the 1938 hurricane and was not salvaged; a study site there represented the trajectory of severe natural disturbance. Of the areas that were logged prior to the hurricane or salvage logged after the hurricane, we selected sites that had pre-disturbance composition similar to the Harvard Tract (i.e. dominated by hemlock or pine; Branch et al. 1930). Similarly, in order to control for natural disturbance severity between salvaged and non- salvaged treatments, we selected sites in the salvaged areas that were severely damaged by the hurricane (Foster 1988). Topography and soil type were not explicitly accounted for in the site selection process. From these criteria, 6 salvaged and 7 logged sites were selected. Prior to the 1938 hurricane, 14 plots were established in the Harvard Tract, which were remeasured as one site in 2016 given the relatively small size of the Tract.

    At each site, 2–4 0.05 ha plots were evenly distributed 25 m from the site center, which was determined as the point closest to the original plots established in the 1930 surveys (Branch et al. 1930). At each plot, DBH and species were recorded for all live trees over 10 cm DBH. For stumps (height less than 1.3 m), diameter at the tallest solid point was taken and decay class was recorded. Decay classification followed USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis guidelines (Sollins 1982) using a 5-class system, primarily determined by structural integrity, branch and twig presence, and level of rot and invading roots. For snags (height ≥ 1.3 m), DBH, height, and fragmentation class were recorded (Tyrrell and Crow 1994). Live and dead trees were identified to species or to the lowest taxonomic rank when species was unidentifiable.

    Downed coarse woody material ≥10cm in diameter was measured using the line intersect method with three 34 m transects established radiating from the site center at 0°, 120°, and 240° (Harmon and Sexton 1996). Diameter, species, and decay class were noted for all intersected pieces.

    Surrounding each site center we established 1-ha plots to quantify microtopography and to document evidence of pre-hurricane logging and post-hurricane salvage logging. These larger plots encompassed all 0.05 ha plots within a site and were systematically surveyed along adjacent transects to ensure coverage of the entire ha; stumps, pit and mound structures, and all boles associated with these structures were tallied. The height of pit and mound structures was measured as the difference between the top of the mound and the deepest part of the pit. For each stump, we recorded species, decay class, and angle from vertical.

    Methods citations

    Branch, W.C., Daley, R.K., Lotti, T., 1930. Life History of the Climax Forest on the Pisgah Tract, Winchester. Harvard University, New Hampshire.

    Foster, D.R., 1988. Disturbance history, community organization and vegetation dynamics of the old-growth Pisgah Forest, south-western New Hampshire, U.S.A. J. Ecol. 76, 105–132.

    Sollins, P., 1982. Input and decay of coarse woody debris in coniferous stands in western Oregon and Washington. Can. J. For. Res. 12, 18–28.

    Tyrrell, L.E., Crow, T.R., 1994. Structural characteristics of old-growth hemlock-hardwood forests in relation to age. Ecology 75, 370–386.

  • Use:

    This dataset is released to the public under Creative Commons license CC BY (Attribution). Please keep the designated contact person informed of any plans to use the dataset. Consultation or collaboration with the original investigators is strongly encouraged. Publications and data products that make use of the dataset must include proper acknowledgement.

  • Citation:

    Sass E, D'Amato A, Foster D. 2019. Legacies of Historical Clearcutting, Wind and Salvage Logging in Pisgah State Forest 2016. Harvard Forest Data Archive: HF320.

Detailed Metadata

hf320-01: overstory data

  1. date: date of measurement
  2. site: site location. “og” = old-growth (Branch, Daley, and Lotti’s “Old-growth Plots” (1930)); “lg” = logged (Branch, Daley, and Lotti’s “Stump Plots” (1930)); “ht” = Harvard Tract
  3. plot: location of plot from site center (2-4 plots per site)
  4. tree.id: individual tree number for each tree in the plot
  5. species: species code
    • acpe: Acer pensylvanicum
    • acru: Acer rubrum
    • acsa: Acer saccharum
    • ang: angiosperm
    • beal: Betula alleghaniensis
    • bele: Betula lenta
    • bepa: Betual papyrifera
    • betula: Betula spp.
    • con: conifer
    • fagr: Fagus grandifolia
    • fram: Fraxinus americana
    • osvi: Ostrya virginiana
    • pire: Pinus resinosa
    • piru: Picea rubens
    • pist: Pinus strobus
    • prse: Prunus serotina
    • qual: Quercus alba
    • qupr: Quercus prinus
    • quru: Quercus rubra
    • tsca: Tsuga canadensis
  6. dbh.cm: diameter at breast height (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  7. degree: location of tree - angle from plot center (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  8. distance: location of tree - distance from plot center (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  9. live: whether tree is live or dead
    • 0: dead
    • 1: live
  10. snag.cl: fragmentation class (1-3), if snag (dead tree ≥ 1.3 m tall)
  11. stump.cl: decay class (1-5), if stump (dead tree under 1.3 m tall)
  12. height.m: height of snag (unit: meter / missing value: NA)

hf320-02: cwd data

  1. date: date of measurement
  2. site: site location. “og” = old-growth (Branch, Daley, and Lotti’s “Old-growth Plots” (1930)); “lg” = logged (Branch, Daley, and Lotti’s “Stump Plots” (1930)); “ht” = Harvard Tract
  3. direction: direction of transect from site center (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  4. distance: distance piece was measured along transect (34m in each direction) (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  5. diameter: diameter at intersection of dead wood with transect. Minimum size is 10cm. (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  6. species: species code
    • acru: Acer rubrum
    • ang: angiosperm
    • beal: Betula alleghaniensis
    • bele: Betula lenta
    • bepa: Betual papyrifera
    • con: conifer
    • fagr: Fagus grandifolia
    • pist: Pinus strobus
    • quru: Quercus rubra
    • tsca: Tsuga canadensis
  7. decay.cl: decay class (1-5)
  8. azimuth: direction that the wood piece fell (unit: degree / missing value: NA)

hf320-03: microtopo data

  1. date: date of measurement
  2. site: site location. “og” = old-growth (Branch, Daley, and Lotti’s “Old-growth Plots” (1930)); “lg” = logged (Branch, Daley, and Lotti’s “Stump Plots” (1930)); “ht” = Harvard Tract
  3. complex: number of the structure at the site
  4. stump: if the complex includes a stump
    • 0: no
    • 1: yes
  5. species.stump: species of the stump
    • acru: Acer rubrum
    • acer: Acer spp.
    • ang: angiosperm
    • beal: Betula alleghaniensis
    • bele: Betula lenta
    • bepa: Betual papyrifera
    • betula: Betula spp.
    • con: conifer
    • fagr: Fagus grandifolia
    • fram: Fraxinus americana
    • piri: Picea rigida
    • pist: Pinus strobus
    • qual: Quercus alba
    • quru: Quercus rubra
    • quercus: Quercus spp.
    • tsca: Tsuga canadensis
    • unk: unknown
  6. angle.stump: angle of the stump from vertical. td=too decayed to determine an angle
  7. decay.cl.stump: decay class of the stump (1-5)
  8. pit.mound: if the complex includes a pit-mound structure
    • 0: no
    • 1: yes
  9. size.pm: size of pit-mound structure in centimeters (measured as the difference between the depth of the pit and the highest point of the mound) (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  10. bole: if the complex included a tree bole
    • 0: no
    • 1: yes
  11. species.bole: species of the tree bole
    • acru: Acer rubrum
    • acer: Acer spp.
    • ang: angiosperm
    • beal: Betula alleghaniensis
    • bele: Betula lenta
    • bepa: Betual papyrifera
    • betula: Betula spp.
    • con: conifer
    • cade: Castanea dentata
    • fagr: Fagus grandifolia
    • fram: Fraxinus americana
    • piri: Pinus rigida
    • pist: Pinus strobus
    • qual: Quercus alba
    • quru: Quercus rubra
    • tsca: Tsuga canadensis
    • unk: unknown
  12. decay.cl.bole: decay class of the bole (1-5)
  13. angle.bole: angle of the bole (unit: degree / missing value: NA)