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Harvard Forest Data Archive

HF250

Climate Change Impacts on Forest Biodiversity at Harvard Forest since 2011

Related Publications

Data

Overview

  • Lead: James Clark
  • Investigators:
  • Contact: James Clark
  • Start date: 2011
  • End date: 2017
  • Status: ongoing
  • Location: Simes Tract (Harvard Forest), Slab City Tract (Harvard Forest)
  • Latitude: +42.45538851 to +42.46489345
  • Longitude: -72.21740288 to -72.17686725
  • Elevation: 230 to 237 meter
  • Taxa: Acer pensylvanicum (striped maple), Acer rubrum (red maple), Acer saccharum (sugar maple), Acer spicatum (mountain maple), Amelanchier canadensis (serviceberry), Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch), Betula lenta (sweet birch), Betula papyrifera (paper birch), Carpinus caroliniana (American hornbeam), Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory), Carya glabra (pignut hickory), Carya ovata (shagbark hickory), Castanea dentata (chestnut), Crataegus sp. (hawthorn), Fagus grandifolia (American beech), Fraxinus americana (white ash), Fraxinus nigra (black ash), Hamamelis virginiana (witch hazel), Juglans cinerea (butternut), Juniperus virginiana (red cedar), Malus pumila (apple), Ostrya virginiana (hophornbeam), Picea rubens (red spruce), Pinus strobus (eastern white pine), Populus grandidentata (bigtooth aspen), Prunus serotina (black cherry), Quercus alba (white oak), Quercus rubra (northern red oak), Quercus velutina (black oak), Rhamnus cathartica (common buckthorn), Rhamnus frangula (glossy buckthorn), Sorbus americana (mountain ash), Tilia americana (basswood), Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock), Ulmus americana (American elm)
  • Release date: 2019
  • Revisions:
  • EML file: knb-lter-hfr.250.4
  • DOI: digital object identifier
  • Related links:
  • Study type: long-term measurement, modeling
  • Research topic: biodiversity studies; conservation and management; ecological informatics and modelling; large experiments and permanent plot studies
  • LTER core area: populations, disturbance
  • Keywords: biodiversity, communities, demography, diversity, growth, old growth forests, plant species
  • Abstract:

    Climate change is rapidly transforming forests over much of the globe in ways that are not anticipated by current science. Large-scale forest diebacks, apparently linked to interactions involving drought, warm winters, and other species, are becoming alarmingly frequent. Models of biodiversity and climate have not provided guidance on if/where/when such responses will occur. Instead models often predict potential numbers of extinctions, but these forecasts not are linked in any mechanistic way to the processes that could cause them. Both modeling and field studies rely on aggregate metrics of species presence/absence or relative abundance at regional scales, but climate affects individuals. Aggregation of individual data to the species level, hides or even qualitatively changes climate effects. By sampling and analysis at the individual scale across continental variation in climate, this study can link the individual scale processes to regional responses. This study will exploit existing research sites and the new NEON platform of sites for synthesis of models and data to determine when and where predicting climate impacts on biodiversity is a plausible goal, understand where surprises are likely to occur, and attribute those predictions back to individual tree health and vulnerability to climate risk factors.

    The study will provide climate vulnerability forecasts for forest biodiversity that are directly linked to the process scale. Our goal is provide probabilistic forecasts for the joint distribution of forest responses to climate change, including growth, reproduction, and mortality risk. For scientists, US Forest Service researchers, and policy makers predictions will anticipate combined risks of increasing drought and longer growing seasons. Methods developed under this project will be disseminated through training workshops for postdoctoral associates at other universities and resource managers.

  • Methods:

    Tree Location

    Plots were established in 2011 and are censused every three years. The plots are mapped in 10x10 meter grids, each study area is 50m x 200m. Each tree greater than 2 meters is identified and given a specific ID number. The tree is given a local x, y value within the 10 x 10 meter plot, using the southwest corner (0,0). The following data points are taken for each tree: DBH, reproductive status, canopy status, observed damages, and tree height.

    Tree Diameter

    Diameter is measured at breast height (DBH). Stems greater than 5 cm diameter may be measured with a diameter tape. Stems less than 5 cm diameter must be measured with calipers, averaging several readings (diameter-tapes give an inflated measurement on these smallest stems). Each additional stem branching out below breast height (1.4 m) and reaching a height of at least 2 m is measured individually, receiving its own stem number in the data but not a new tag. Stems branching out above breast height are not counted.

    Canopy Status

    Categories are: 0 = tree receives little or no direct sunlight. 1 = tree receives partial sun. 2 = tree has full access to sunlight (generally a canopy dominant or co-dominant).

    Reproductive status

    Evidence for reproduction may be fruits or flowers, or remnants of the same if they appear to be from this year. Because this assessment requires some prior knowledge of each tree species’ reproductive habits, a table with this information should be provided for each site for reference in the field. Dioecious trees (i.e. acpe, acru, fram, juvi) may be assigned “f” (female reproduction), “m” (male reproduction), “r” (reproductive; only use in cases where it is impossible to see enough detail to determine “m” or “f”), “un” (unknown because of size, season observed, etc.). Monoecious trees (most species) receive “r” (reproductive) or “un” (unknown).

    Damage observations

    Damage codes are: “B” (bent over; generally the top is pinned under something), “C” (cut with chainsaw), “CD” (canopy damage, such as from an ice storm), “D” down (knocked down but not uprooted—generally smaller trees), “GT” (girdled by tag) or “GV” (girdled by vine), “L” (leaning, but not touching ground), “P” (tree was deliberately pulled over—evidenced by visible cable scar), “Q” (other), “S” (snapped—record at what height in notes), “TL” (another tree is leaning against it), “U” (knocked down and uprooted—generally larger trees). The code “F” (fallen) may be appended to B, D, L, or U to indicate that another tree was the cause of damage.

    Seed collection

    Each plot has 36 baskets (the size of a bushel), hung in two rows across the plot. Each basket has been assigned a UTM coordinate. Seed collection is done in late spring and fall.

  • Use:

    This dataset is released to the public under Creative Commons license CC BY (Attribution). Please keep the designated contact person informed of any plans to use the dataset. Consultation or collaboration with the original investigators is strongly encouraged. Publications and data products that make use of the dataset must include proper acknowledgement.

  • Citation:

    Clark J. 2019. Climate Change Impacts on Forest Biodiversity at Harvard Forest since 2011. Harvard Forest Data Archive: HF250.

Detailed Metadata

hf250-01: Barre Woods tree census

  1. site: site identification
    • HFBW: Slab City Tract
    • HFS: Simes Tract
  2. id: unique id
  3. tag: tag number of the tree in the field
  4. species: species code
  5. stem: number of stems (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  6. cens.in.yr: year in which a tree was “censused in” to the data, as opposed to “grow in”. This category applies when a plot is initially censused, in areas where a plot is expanded, or when a tree is encountered in the plot that must have been missed in the previous census.
  7. grow.in.yr: year in which a stem was first observed to have reached the 2 m minimum height to be recorded in the data. In the case of a leaning stem, the tip of the stem must be at least 2 m above ground level to be counted.
  8. death.yr: year in which a stem was first observed to be dead
  9. censor.yr: year in which a stem was killed for study purposes (for ex. Pulled down to create an artificial gap)
  10. mia.yr: year in which a stem “went missing”. This column is primarily for technicians to reference.
  11. post.x: x location of the reference post (of a 10m x 10m reference grid) to which the tree was mapped (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  12. post.y: y location of the reference post to which the tree was mapped (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  13. local.x: distance in the x direction from the reference post at post.x, post.y (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  14. local.y: distance in the y direction from the reference post at post.x, post.y (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  15. x: x coordinate of the tree relative to the field grid system; the sum of post.x and local.x (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  16. y: y coordinate of the tree relative to the field grid system; the sum of post.y and local.y (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  17. utm.x: UTM easting, zone 18N (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  18. utm.y: UTM northing, zone 18N (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  19. elev: elevation above sea level of the base of the tree (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  20. diam.2011: diameter at breast height (1.4 m) in 2011. All stems less than 5cm have been measured with calipers, as diameter tapes give inflated readings on small stems. (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  21. diam.2013: diameter at breast height (1.4 m) in 2013. All stems less than 5cm have been measured with calipers, as diameter tapes give inflated readings on small stems. (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  22. sex.2011: reproductive status in 2011 as observed in the field
    • F: Female reproduction. Use only for dioecious trees.
    • M: Male reproduction. Use only for dioecious trees.
    • R: Reproductive. Use for monoecious trees or for dioecious trees when unable to determine sex.
    • N: Not reproductive. Use only when the whole canopy is visible and the tree is observed during its typical reproductive season.
    • UN: Unknown. No sign of reproduction at the moment, but either the whole canopy is not visible or the tree was not observed during the typical reproductive season.
    • NA: The stem was not checked for reproductive status.
  23. sex.2013: reproductive status in 2013 as observed in the field
    • F: Female reproduction. Use only for dioecious trees.
    • M: Male reproduction. Use only for dioecious trees.
    • R: Reproductive. Use for monoecious trees or for dioecious trees when unable to determine sex.
    • N: Not reproductive. Use only when the whole canopy is visible and the tree is observed during its typical reproductive season.
    • UN: Unknown. No sign of reproduction at the moment, but either the whole canopy is not visible or the tree was not observed during the typical reproductive season.
    • NA: The stem was not checked for reproductive status.
  24. can.2011: canopy status in 2011
    • 0: The stem has no access to direct sunlight (typical understory tree).
    • 1: The stem has partial access to direct sunlight.
    • 2: The stem is a canopy dominant or codominant and has full access to sunlight.
    • NA: The stem was not evaluated for canopy status.
  25. can.2013: canopy status in 2013
    • 0: The stem has no access to direct sunlight (typical understory tree).
    • 1: The stem has partial access to direct sunlight.
    • 2: The stem is a canopy dominant or codominant and has full access to sunlight.
    • NA: The stem was not evaluated for canopy status.
  26. damage: whether or not there was ever damage to this tree
    • D: damage
    • ND: no damage
  27. dam.2011: damage to tree observed in 2011
    • B: Bent
    • C: Cut with chainsaw
    • CD: Canopy damage (i.e., from an ice storm, dieback)
    • D: Down, knocked down but no root ball (mangled or snapped)
    • F: Fallen tree, to be appended to B, S, or L to indicate reason (SF, LF, etc.)
    • G: Girdled, either by tag or vine
    • L: Leaning
    • Q: Other
    • S: Snapped
    • TL: Tree has another tree leaning against it
    • U: Uprooted, knocked down with root ball
    • V: Presumably indicates damage inflicted by a vine
  28. dam.2013: damage to tree observed in 2013
    • B: Bent
    • C: Cut with chainsaw
    • CD: Canopy damage (i.e., from an ice storm, dieback)
    • D: Down, knocked down but no root ball (mangled or snapped)
    • F: Fallen tree, to be appended to B, S, or L to indicate reason (SF, LF, etc.)
    • G: Girdled, either by tag or vine
    • L: Leaning
    • Q: Other
    • S: Snapped
    • TL: Tree has another tree leaning against it
    • U: Uprooted, knocked down with root ball
    • V: Presumably indicates damage inflicted by a vine
  29. height.m.2013: height of tree in 2014 (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  30. height.ft.2013: height of tree in 2014 (unit: foot / missing value: NA)
  31. core.yr1: first year that tree was cored
  32. notes.2011: any comments for this specific tree mentioned here
  33. notes.2013: any comments for this specific tree mentioned here

hf250-02: Simes plot tree census

  1. site: site identification
    • HFBW: Slab City Tract
    • HFS: Simes Tract
  2. id: unique id
  3. tag: tag number of the tree in the field
  4. species: species code
  5. stem: number of stems (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  6. cens.in.yr: year in which a tree was “censused in” to the data, as opposed to “grow in”. This category applies when a plot is initially censused, in areas where a plot is expanded, or when a tree is encountered in the plot that must have been missed in the previous census.
  7. grow.in.yr: year in which a stem was first observed to have reached the 2 m minimum height to be recorded in the data. In the case of a leaning stem, the tip of the stem must be at least 2 m above ground level to be counted.
  8. death.yr: year in which a stem was first observed to be dead
  9. censor.yr: year in which a stem was killed for study purposes (for ex. Pulled down to create an artificial gap)
  10. mia.yr: year in which a stem “went missing”. This column is primarily for technicians to reference
  11. post.x: x location of the reference post (of a 10m x 10m reference grid) to which the tree was mapped (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  12. post.y: y location of the reference post to which the tree was mapped (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  13. local.x: distance in the x direction from the reference post at post.x, post.y (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  14. local.y: distance in the y direction from the reference post at post.x, post.y (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  15. x: x coordinate of the tree relative to the field grid system; the sum of post.x and local.x (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  16. y: y coordinate of the tree relative to the field grid system; the sum of post.y and local.y (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  17. utm.x: UTM easting, zone 18N (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  18. utm.y: UTM northing, zone 18N (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  19. elev: elevation above sea level of the base of the tree (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  20. diam.2011: diameter at breast height (1.4 m) in 2011. All stems smaller than 5cm have been measured with calipers, as diameter tapes give inflated readings on small stems. (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  21. diam.2013: diameter at breast height (1.4 m) in 2013. All stems less than 5cm have been measured with calipers, as diameter tapes give inflated readings on small stems. (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  22. sex.2011: reproductive status in 2011 as observed in the field
    • F: Female reproduction. Use only for dioecious trees.
    • M: Male reproduction. Use only for dioecious trees.
    • R: Reproductive. Use for monoecious trees or for dioecious trees when unable to determine sex.
    • N: Not reproductive. Use only when the whole canopy is visible and the tree is observed during its typical reproductive season.
    • UN: Unknown. No sign of reproduction at the moment, but either the whole canopy is not visible or the tree was not observed during the typical reproductive season.
    • NA: The stem was not checked for reproductive status.
  23. sex.2013: reproductive status in 2013 as observed in the field
    • F: Female reproduction. Use only for dioecious trees.
    • M: Male reproduction. Use only for dioecious trees.
    • R: Reproductive. Use for monoecious trees or for dioecious trees when unable to determine sex.
    • N: Not reproductive. Use only when the whole canopy is visible and the tree is observed during its typical reproductive season.
    • UN: Unknown. No sign of reproduction at the moment, but either the whole canopy is not visible or the tree was not observed during the typical reproductive season.
    • NA: The stem was not checked for reproductive status.
  24. can.2011: canopy status in 2011
    • 0: The stem has no access to direct sunlight (typical understory tree)
    • 1: The stem has partial access to direct sunlight
    • 2: The stem is a canopy dominant or codominant and has full access to sunlight
    • NA: The stem was not evaluated for canopy status
  25. can.2013: canopy status in 2013
    • 0: The stem has no access to direct sunlight (typical understory tree).
    • 1: The stem has partial access to direct sunlight.
    • 2: The stem is a canopy dominant or codominant and has full access to sunlight.
    • NA: The stem was not evaluated for canopy status.
  26. damage: whether or not there was ever any damage to this tree
    • D: damage
    • ND: no damage
  27. dam.2011: damage to tree observed in 2011
    • B: Bent
    • C: Cut with chainsaw
    • CD: Canopy damage (i.e., from an ice storm, dieback)
    • D: Down, knocked down but no root ball (mangled or snapped)
    • F: Fallen tree, to be appended to B, S, or L to indicate reason (SF, LF, etc.)
    • G: Girdled, either by tag or vine
    • L: Leaning
    • Q: Other
    • S: Snapped (Height at which it is snapped should be recorded in notes column)
    • TL: Tree has another tree leaning against it
    • U: Uprooted, knocked down with root ball
    • V: Presumably indicates damage inflicted by a vine
  28. dam.2013: damage to tree observed in 2013
    • B: Bent
    • C: Cut with chainsaw
    • CD: Canopy damage (i.e., from an ice storm, dieback)
    • D: Down, knocked down but no root ball (mangled or snapped)
    • F: Fallen tree, to be appended to B, S, or L to indicate reason (SF, LF, etc.)
    • G: Girdled, either by tag or vine
    • L: Leaning
    • Q: Other
    • S: Snapped
    • TL: Tree has another tree leaning against it
    • U: Uprooted, knocked down with root ball
    • V: Presumably indicates damage inflicted by a vine
  29. height.m.2013: height of tree in 2014 (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  30. height.ft.2013: height of tree in 2014 (unit: foot / missing value: NA)
  31. core.yr1: first year that tree was cored
  32. notes.2011: any comments for this specific tree mentioned here
  33. notes.2013: any comments for this specific tree mentioned here

hf250-03: Barre Woods basket locations

  1. basket: basket number
  2. x: x coordinate of the basket relative to the field grid system (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  3. y: y coordinate of the basket relative to the field grid system (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  4. utm.x: UTM easting, zone 18N (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  5. utm.y: UTM northing, zone 18N (unit: meter / missing value: NA)

hf250-04: Simes plot basket locations

  1. basket: basket number
  2. x: x coordinate of the basket relative to the field grid system (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  3. y: y coordinate of the basket relative to the field grid system (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  4. utm.x: UTM easting, zone 18N (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  5. utm.y: UTM northing, zone 18N (unit: meter / missing value: NA)

hf250-05: Barre Woods seeds

  1. trapnum: unique id
  2. date: date
  3. month: month
  4. day: day
  5. year: year
  6. acer.rubr: Acer rubrum (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  7. acer.sacc: Acer saccharum (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  8. acer.penn: Acer pensylvanicum (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  9. betu.alle: Betula alleghaniensis (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  10. betu.lent.fruit: Betula lenta fruiting body (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  11. frax.amer: Fraxinus americana (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. quer.alba: Quercus alba (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  13. quer.rubr: Quercus Rubra (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  14. quer.velu: Quercus velutina (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  15. quer.imma: Quercus seed/fruit is immature/aborted such that it is too underdeveloped to have ever been viable (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  16. pinu.stro: Pinus strobus (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  17. pinu.stro.fruit: Pinus strobus fruiting body (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  18. pinu.imma.fruit: Pinus seed/fruit is immature/aborted such that it is too underdeveloped to have ever been viable (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  19. prun.sero: Prunus serotina (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  20. unkn: unknown genus/species (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  21. notes: comments

hf250-06: Simes plot seeds

  1. trapnum: unique id
  2. date: date
  3. month: month
  4. day: day
  5. year: year
  6. acer.rubr: Acer rubrum (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  7. acer.sacc: Acer saccharum (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  8. betu.alle: Betula alleghaniensis (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  9. betu.lent: Betula lenta (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  10. betu.papy: Betula papyrifera (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  11. carp.caro: Carpinus caroliniana (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. frax.amer: Fraxinus americana (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  13. frax.penn: Fraxinus pennsylanica (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  14. pinu.stro: Pinus strobus (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  15. prun.sero: Prunus serotina (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  16. quer.rubr: Quercus Rubra (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  17. quer.velu: Quercus velutina (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  18. quer.imma: Quercus seed/fruit is immature/aborted such that it is too underdeveloped to have ever been viable (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  19. quer.unkn: Quercus, unknown species (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  20. tsug.cana: Tsuga canadensis (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  21. unkn: unknown genus/species (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  22. notes: comments