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Harvard Forest Data Archive

HF162

Plantation Biodiversity Plots at Harvard Forest since 2007

Related Publications

Data

Overview

  • Lead: Audrey Barker Plotkin
  • Investigators:
  • Contact: Audrey Barker Plotkin
  • Start date: 2007
  • End date: 2017
  • Status: ongoing
  • Location: Prospect Hill Tract (Harvard Forest), Tom Swamp Tract (Harvard Forest)
  • Latitude: +42.45 to +42.55
  • Longitude: -72.23 to -72.16
  • Elevation: 205 to 420 meter
  • Taxa: Picea abies (norway spruce), Picea glauca (white spruce), Pinus resinosa (red pine)
  • Release date: 2019
  • Revisions:
  • EML file: knb-lter-hfr.162.15
  • DOI: digital object identifier
  • Related links:
  • Study type: long-term measurement
  • Research topic: biodiversity studies; conservation and management
  • LTER core area: disturbance
  • Keywords: browsing, coarse woody debris, seedlings, silviculture, trees, understory vegetation
  • Abstract:

    Plantations have been part of forestry at Harvard Forest since its beginning. Plantations were established from 1911-1944, usually on open or cut-over land. The objectives for plantation forests at Harvard Forest were to: increase amount of productive forest land; examine the suitability of various species and cultivars to New England conditions; and test planting and tending methods. At first, mainly small plantings (less than 1 to 4 acres) were established primarily on "blank" lands. Some larger plantations (20+ acres) were established on cut-over land around 1930.

    The bulk of the plantings were red pine, white pine and spruce (white and Norway), but several other conifers were also planted. The maximum amount of land in plantations came to about 270 acres (less than 10% of Harvard Forest’s land base). Tending of the plantations, especially weeding in the decade following establishment, but also in-filling, pruning and thinning, was conducted and carefully documented. However, tending of plantations ceased about 1950.

    Since then, the fate of the plantations has been mixed. Some plantations were out-competed by native forest with only scattered planted trees remaining. A few acres of plantations were harvested in the 1950s. About 40 acres of plantations were harvested in the 1990s. As of 2007, approximately 135 acres remained. These stands range in age from 60-90 years old. Some stands have substantial areas blown down. We developed a management plan to harvest about 80 acres of mature plantation forests beginning in 2008 in order to terminate these long term experiments, to regenerate a diversity of native tree species and restore native forests to these sites, and to initiate a new suite of long term experiments. For the next 10-15 years, the harvested areas will provide early successional habitat for a variety of wildlife species.

    A suite of permanent vegetation plots was established throughout the plantations to assess vegetation structure in plantations and predict future dynamics in harvested and early seral habitats. An initial objective of the baseline survey was to characterize current tree regeneration and understory flora that will in large part determine the future composition of these forests as the overstory is harvested or senesces.

  • Methods:

    Study Design: A set of 22, 20m by 20m permanent plots were established. Plots were placed in red pine and spruce dominated plantations, and in both harvest and control (no harvest) sites. The number of plots per plantation is proportional to plantation area. Sites less than 10 acres contain one plot. There are two plots in a 13.5-acre unharvested red pine plantation; two plots in a harvested 13.5 acre spruce plantation; five plots in a somewhat heterogenous 38-acre harvested pine plantation. Altogether, there are 4 cut pine sites covering ~53 acres, 5 control pine sites covering ~26 acres, 2 cut spruce sites covering 16 acres, and 2 control spruce sites covering ~7 acres. Plots were established and measured in 2007, prior to harvest. We plan to measure the plots every 5 years. So far, in 2012 and 2017, all 22 plots were re-measured.

    Trees: Live stems at least 2.5cm dbh were measured, recording dbh and species. Live saplings more than1.3m tall but less than 2.5cm dbh were tallied by species in a 5.64 radius plot (100m2) centered on each plot.

    Seedlings: Presence/absence of tree seedlings (less than 1.3m tall) by species was recorded in 10, 1.13m radius (4m2) plots in each plot, and frequency calculated. This measure of stocking is often considered more useful than total densities of tree seedlings, as this metric gives some indication of how well-distributed tree regeneration is on the site.

    Understory vegetation: A list of shrubs, herbs, ferns, lycopods and graminoids (very roughly) occurring on each 20x20m plot was compiled, and abundance was estimated for each species using the following cover classes: 1 is less than 1% cover, 2 is 1-3% cover, 3 is 3-5% cover, 4 is 6-15% cover, 5 is 16-25% cover, 6 is 26-50% cover, 7 is 51-75% cover, 8 is more than 75% cover.

    Coarse Woody Debris (CWD): Two transects running diagonally across each plot were established. The diameter, species (or species group) and decay class of each downed piece of wood that intersects the line-transect was measured using a 50cm caliper. Minimum average diameter = 7.5cm. When possible, two diameter measurements are taken, to account for the fact that most stems are not uniformly round. From there we can calculate volume per unit area by using the formula V= 9.869* (d /8L), where L is length and d is diameter squared (Harmon, M.E. and J. Sexton. 1996. Guidelines for measurements of woody detritus in forest ecosystems. Not a formal publication).

    Snags (standing dead trees) within the entire 20m x 20m plot were measured if at least 10cm dbh

    Stump volume was estimated in the harvested plots in 2010 and 2012, by recording the species, diameter, height and decay class of each stump found within the plot. Minimum stump diameter was 10 cm.

    Browsing: In 2008, browsing presence/absence by stem was surveyed in the 22 plots. Twenty-five 4m2 subplots were established in each plot, so 25% of each plot was assessed. Woody tree and shrub stems (excluding Rubus) between 0.3-3.0m tall and less than 5cm diameter were included. While moose browsing can be distinguished from deer browsing when tall (greather than 2m) or large (perhaps more than 0.5cm diameter) twigs are browsed, and these were noted, there were too few of these large saplings sampled to clearly distinguish between moose and deer browse. A complementary exclosure experiment by Faison et al. has been established in four harvested plantations to tease apart the effects of deer vs. moose browsing, and to better quantify their long-term influences on forest structure and composition. Data related to browsing after 2008 can be found in HF203: http://harvardforest.fas.harvard.edu:8080/exist/apps/datasets/showData.html?id=hf203.

  • Use:

    This dataset is released to the public under Creative Commons license CC BY (Attribution). Please keep the designated contact person informed of any plans to use the dataset. Consultation or collaboration with the original investigators is strongly encouraged. Publications and data products that make use of the dataset must include proper acknowledgement.

  • Citation:

    Barker Plotkin A. 2019. Plantation Biodiversity Plots at Harvard Forest since 2007. Harvard Forest Data Archive: HF162.

Detailed Metadata

hf162-01: plots

  1. plot: plot number (1-22)
  2. name: plantation ID based on Harvard Forest archival records. The first two letters refer to the tract (PH=Prospect Hill; TS=Tom Swamp) and the numbers refer to the year planted (e.g. 44 was planted in 1944). Strings of two-digit numbers + one letter indicate that a plot was placed in a mix of multiple, small, contiguous plantings.
  3. dom.sp: dominant planted species
    • Spruce: spruce dominant
    • Pine: pine dominant
  4. treat: treatment
    • Harvest: harvested
    • Control: control
  5. harv.date: harvest date
  6. acres: plantation acreage (unit: acre / missing value: NA)
  7. harvest.acres: acres harvested per management unit, which can be a portion of a plantation or more than one contiguous plantation (unit: acre / missing value: NA)
  8. comp: Harvard Forest compartment
  9. tree.ht.07m: average tree height in the plot in 2007 (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  10. tree.ht.12m: height of the tallest tree in the plot in 2012 (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  11. tree.ht.17m: height of the tallest tree in the plot in 2017 (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  12. year.planted: year plantation was established by transplanting
  13. planted.spacing: original average spacing of the plantation (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  14. thinned: whether the plantation received any thinning silvicultural treatment
    • No Info: records on thinning not found
    • Yes: thinned
    • No: not thinned
  15. lat: latitude (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  16. long: longitude (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  17. ma.spm.y: Y location in Massachusetts State Plane Meters, Mainland, NAD1983 (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  18. ma.spm.x: location in Massachusetts State Plane Meters, Mainland, NAD1983 (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  19. notes.2012: notes from 2012
  20. notes.2017: plot-level notes from 2017

hf162-02: trees

  1. plot: plot number (1-22)
  2. year: year. 2007 is pre-harvest; 2008 and 2010 are post-harvest; 2012 includes all 22 plots
  3. species: four letter species code
    • ACPE: Acer pensylvanicum
    • ACRU: Acer rubrum
    • ACSA: Acer saccharum
    • BEAL: Betula alleghaniensis
    • BELE: Betula lenta
    • BEPA: Betula papyrifera
    • BEPO: Betula populifolia
    • CADE: Castanea dentate
    • FAGR: Fagus grandifolia
    • FRAM: Fraxinus americana
    • LASP: Larix species
    • NYSY: Nyssa sylvatica
    • OVSI: Ostrya virginiana
    • PIAB: Picea abies
    • PIGL: Picea glauca
    • PIRE: Pinus resinosa
    • PIST: Pinus strobus
    • POGR: Populus grandidentata
    • POTR: Populus tremuloides
    • PRPE: Prunus pensylvanica
    • PRSE: Prunus serotina
    • QUAL: Quercus alba
    • QURU: Quercus rubra
    • QUVE: Quercus velutina
    • TSCA: Tsuga canadensis
  4. dbh: diameter measured at 1.3m; trees >=2.5cm dbh are included) (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  5. notes: notes

hf162-03: saplings

  1. plot: plot number (1-22)
  2. year: year. 2007 is pre-harvest
  3. species: four letter species code
    • ACPE: Acer pensylvanicum
    • ACRU: Acer rubrum
    • ACSA: Acer saccharum
    • BEAL: Betula alleghaniensis
    • BELE: Betula lenta
    • BEPA: Betula papyrifera
    • BEPO: Betula populifolia
    • FAGR: Fagus grandifolia
    • FRAM: Fraxinus Americana
    • MASP: Malus, species not identified
    • NYSY: Nyssa sylvatica
    • PIAB: Picea abies
    • PICsp: Picea, species not identified
    • PIRE: Pinus resinosa
    • PIST: Pinus strobus
    • POGR: Populus grandidentata
    • POTR: Populus tremuloides
    • PRPE: Prunus pensylvanica
    • PRSE: Prunus serotina
    • QUAL: Quercus alba
    • QURU: Quercus rubra
    • QUVE: Quercus velutina
    • TSCA: Tsuga canadensis
    • Total: sum of all saplings in plot
  4. number: number of saplings in plot (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  5. notes: notes

hf162-04: tree seedlings

  1. plot: plot number (1-22)
  2. year: year. 2007 is pre-harvest
  3. species: four letter species code
    • ACPE: Acer pensylvanicum
    • ACRU: Acer rubrum
    • ACSA: Acer saccharum
    • BEAL: Betula alleghaniensis
    • BELE: Betula lenta
    • BEAL.LE: Betula alleghaniensis and/or Betula lenta
    • BEPA: Betula papyrifera
    • BEPO: Betula populifolia
    • CADE: Castanea dentata
    • FAGR: Fagus grandifolia
    • FRAM: Fraxinus americana
    • NYSY: Nyssa sylvatica
    • PIAB: Picea abies
    • PIGL: Picea glabra
    • PICsp: Picea, species not identified
    • PIRE: Pinus resinosa
    • PIRU: Picea rubens
    • PIST: Pinus strobus
    • POGR: Populus grandidentata
    • POSP: Populus (grandidentata or tremuloides)
    • PRPE: Prunus pensylvanica
    • PRSE: Prunus serotina
    • PRSP: Prunus, species not identified
    • QUAL: Quercus alba
    • QURU: Quercus rubra
    • QUVE: Quercus velutina
    • SOAM: Sorbus americana
    • TSCA: Tsuga canadensis
    • ZOverall: any tree seedlings
  4. percent: percent of the 10 plots that contained seedling species (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)

hf162-05: understory vegetation

  1. plot: plot number (1-22)
  2. year: year (2007 is pre-harvest)
  3. lycann: Lycopodium annotinum, clubmoss
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  4. lyccom: Lycopodium complanatum, clubmoss
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  5. lycluc: Lycopodium lucidulum, clubmoss
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  6. lycobs: Lycopodium obscurum, clubmoss
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  7. athfel: Athyrium Felix-femina, fern
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  8. denpun: Dennstaedtia punctilobula, fern
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  9. dryspe: Dryopteris species, fern
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  10. onosen: Onoclea sensibilis, fern
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  11. osmcin: Osmunda cinnamomea, fern
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  12. osmcla: Osmunda claytoniana, fern
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  13. pteaqu: Pteridium aquilinum, fern
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  14. thenov: Thelypteris nova-boracensis, fern
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  15. braere: Brachyelytrum erectum, graminoid
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  16. carpen: Carex pensylvanica, graminoid
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  17. carspe: Carex species, graminoid
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  18. danspi: Danthonia spicata, graminoid
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  19. grass: Grass unknown species, graminoid
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  20. panspe: Panicum species, graminoid
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  21. rush: Rush,graminoid
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  22. apocan: Apocynum cannabinum, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  23. aqucan: Aquilegia Canadensis, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  24. arahis: Aralia hispidis, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  25. aranud: Aralia nudicaulis, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  26. astacu: Aster acuminatus, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  27. astdiv: Aster divaricatus, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  28. astspe: Aster species, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  29. cirspe: Cirsium species, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  30. clibor: Clintonia borealis, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  31. clivul: Clinopodium vulgare (was SATVUL), herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  32. comper: Comptonia peregrine, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  33. copgro: Coptis groenlandica, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  34. cyspe: Cypredium species, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  35. equspe: Equisetum species, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  36. erehie: Erechtites hieracifolia, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  37. galtri: Galium triflorum, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  38. goospe: Goodyera species, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  39. hiecae: Hieracium caespitosum, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  40. houcae: Houstonia caerulea, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  41. hypper: Hypericum perforatum, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  42. lamspe: Lamiaceae family, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  43. lysqua: Lysimachia quadrifolia, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  44. maican: Maianthemum canadense, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  45. medvir: Medeola virginiana, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  46. monhyp: Monotropa hypopithys, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  47. monuni: Monotropa uniflora, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  48. oxaspe: Oxalis species, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  49. phyame: Phytolacca americana, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  50. polcil: Fallopia cilinodis, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  51. polpub: Polygonatum pubescens, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  52. potsim: Potentilla simplex, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  53. potspe: Potentilla species, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  54. rumace: Rumex acetosella, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  55. sisspe: Sisyrinchium species, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  56. smirac: Smilacina racemose, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  57. Solanum: Solanum species, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  58. solcan: Solidago canadensis, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  59. solfuzzy: Solidago species, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  60. solsmooth: Solidago species, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  61. solspe: Solidago species, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  62. taroff: Taraxacum officinale, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  63. tribor: Trientalis borealis, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  64. tripre: Trifolium pretense, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  65. trispe: Trillium species, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  66. uvuses: Uvularia sessilifolia, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  67. veroff: Veronica officinalis, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  68. versp: Veronica Sp., herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  69. vertha: Verbascum thapsus, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  70. viosag: Viola sagittata, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  71. viospe: Viola species, herb
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  72. amespe: Amelanchier sp., shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  73. celorb: Celastrus orbiculatus, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  74. coralt: Cornus alternifolia, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  75. corcan: Cornus canadensis, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  76. corcor: Corylus cornuta, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  77. craspe: Crataegus sp., shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  78. dielon: Diervilla lonicera, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  79. epirep: Epigaea repens, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  80. euoala: Euonymus alatus, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  81. gaupro: Gaultheria procumbens, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  82. gaybac: Gaylussacia baccata, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  83. hamvir: Hamamelis virginiana, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  84. ilemuc: Ilex mucronata, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  85. ilever: Ilex verticillata, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  86. lonspe: Lonicera species (non-native), shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  87. malsie: Malus sieboldii, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  88. mitrep: Mitchella repens, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  89. parqui: Parthenocissus quinquefolia, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  90. pruvir: Prunus virginiana, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  91. rhafra: Rhamnus frangula, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  92. rhonud: Rhododendron nudiflorum, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  93. rhurad: Rhus radicans, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  94. rhytyp: Rhus typhina, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  95. rosmul: Rosa multiflora, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  96. ruball: Rubus allegheniensis, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  97. rubhis: Rubus hispidus, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  98. rubida: Rubus idaeus, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  99. rubspe: Unknown Rubus sp, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  100. sampub: Sambucus pubens, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  101. smiher: Smilax herbacea, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  102. sorame: Sorbus americana, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  103. spitom: Spirea tomentosa, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  104. vacang: Vaccinium angustifolium, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  105. vaccor: Vaccinium corymbosum, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  106. vacpal: Vaccinium pallidum, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  107. vacspe: Vaccinium species, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  108. vibace: Viburnum acerifolium, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  109. vibaln: Viburnum alnifolium, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  110. vibcas: Viburnum cassinoides, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  111. vibden: Viburnum dentatum, shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  112. vitspe: Vitis sp., shrub
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  113. add.unk: if calculating species richness, add this number as it includes species that were present in a plot but remained unidentified so aren’t elsewhere in the list
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover
  114. add.tree: number of tree species present in the understory layer of the plot. Add in to total species richness if including trees is desired.
    • 0: none
    • 1: less than 1% cover
    • 2: 1-3% cover
    • 3: 3-5% cover
    • 4: 6-15% cover
    • 5: 16-25% cover
    • 6: 26-50% cover
    • 7: 51-75% cover
    • 8: more than 75% cover

hf162-06: coarse woody debris

  1. plot: plot number (1-22)
  2. year: year sampled
  3. transect: location of transect within plot, running diagonally from:
    • SW.NE: southwest to northeast plot corner
    • SE.NW: southeast to northwest plot corner
    • NW.SE: northwest to southeast plot corner
    • NE.SW: northeast to southwest plot corner
    • NA: not clearly recorded
  4. tlength: length of transect in meters; always 28.28m (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  5. diam1: diameter of wood at point it crosses the transect line (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  6. diam2: second diameter of piece, measured perpendicular to diam1; it was not always possible to obtain two measurements (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  7. decay: decay class as defined below
    • 1: solid wood, recently fallen, bark and twigs present
    • 2: solid wood, significant weathering, branches present
    • 3: wood not solid, bark may be sloughing but nail still must be pounded into wood
    • 4: wood sloughing and/or friable, nail may be forcibly pushed into wood
    • 5: wood friable, barely holding shape, nail may be easily pushed into wood
  8. genus: genus
  9. species: species
  10. notes: notes

hf162-07: snags

  1. plot: plot number (1-22)
  2. year: year sampled
  3. dbh: diameter at 1.3m (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  4. species: species, genus, or type (deciduous/conifer)
    • ACPE: Acer pensylvanicum
    • ACRU: Acer rubrum
    • BEAL: Betula alleghaniensis
    • BELE: Betula lenta
    • conifer: conifer
    • deciduous: deciduous
    • PIAB: Picea abies
    • Picea: spruce, but species not discerned
    • PIGL: Picea glauca
    • Pinus: pine, but species not discerned
    • PIRE: Pinus resinosa
    • PIST: Pinus strobus
    • PRSE: Prunus serotina
    • QURU: Quercus rubra
    • TSCA: Tsuga canadensis
    • Unknown: not identified
  5. notes: notes

hf162-08: browsing

  1. year: year sampled
  2. plot: plot number (1-22)
  3. subplot: subplot (A-Y)
  4. species: species, see hf162-02-trees.csv and hf162-03-seedlings.csv and hf162-04-under.csv
  5. height.cl: height class
    • 1: 0.3-1.99m
    • 2: 1.0-1.99m
    • 3: >2m
  6. dbh: diameter at breast height, if stem tall enough (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  7. browsing: browsing
    • N: browsing not observed
    • Y: browsing present
  8. browsing2m: browsing at or above 2m
    • N: browsing at/above 2m height not observed
    • Y: browsing at/above 2m height observed
  9. browsingd05: browsing of stem >=0.5cm dbh
    • N: not a browsed stem >=0.5cm dbh
    • Y: browsed stem >=0.5cm dbh
  10. notes: notes, includes notes on subplots that contained no vegetation

hf162-09: stumps

  1. plot: plot number (1-22); but stumps tallied in harvested plots only
  2. year: year sampled; post-harvest only
  3. species: species, genus, or type (deciduous/conifer)
    • ACPE: Acer pensylvanicum
    • ACRU: Acer rubrum
    • BEAL: Betula alleghaniensis
    • BELE: Betula lenta
    • Betula: birch, but species not discerned
    • conifer: conifer
    • deciduous: deciduous
    • LASP: Larix species
    • PIAB: Picea abies
    • Picea: spruce, but species not discerned
    • Pinus: pine, but species not discerned
    • PIRE: Pinus resinosa
    • PIST: Pinus strobus
    • PRSE: Prunus serotina
    • Prunus: Prunus, but species not discerned
    • QUAL: Quercus alba
    • QURU: Quercus rubra
    • Quercus: oak, but species not discerned
    • TSCA: Tsuga canadensis
    • Unknown: not identified
  4. diam1: stump diameter (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  5. diam2: second diameter in cm. measured perpendicular to the first, if possible. Not measured in 2010 (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  6. height: stump height; listed as negative for hollows as this is negative space to be subtracted from the plot volume (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  7. decay: decay class as defined below
    • 1: solid wood, recently fallen, bark and twigs present
    • 2: solid wood, significant weathering, branches present
    • 3: wood not solid, bark may be sloughing but nail still must be pounded into wood
    • 4: wood sloughing and/or friable, nail may be forcibly pushed into wood
    • 5: wood friable, barely holding shape, nail may be easily pushed into wood
  8. notes: notes