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Harvard Forest Data Archive

HF105

Seed Bank in Hemlock Removal Experiment at Harvard Forest 2004-2015

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Data

Overview

  • Lead: Aaron Ellison, Elizabeth Farnsworth, Kelley Sullivan
  • Investigators: Audrey Barker Plotkin, Samantha Hilerio, Chelsea Carr, Mack Bennett
  • Contact: Aaron Ellison
  • Start date: 2004
  • End date: 2015
  • Status: completed
  • Location: Simes Tract (Harvard Forest)
  • Latitude: +42.47 to +42.48
  • Longitude: -72.22 to -72.21
  • Elevation: 200 to 240 meter
  • Taxa: Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, Poaceae, Acer spp., Betula spp., Tsuga canadensis
  • Release date: 2019
  • Revisions:
  • EML file: knb-lter-hfr.105.23
  • DOI: digital object identifier
  • Related links:
  • Study type: long-term measurement
  • Research topic: biodiversity studies; conservation and management; invasive plants, pests and pathogens; large experiments and permanent plot studies
  • LTER core area: populations, disturbance
  • Keywords: hemlock, hemlock woolly adelgid, seed banks, regeneration
  • Abstract:

    The impending loss of hemlock trees due to hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) infestation prompted the need to identify species of plants able to colonize areas where hemlock has been removed. We investigated species present in the seed bank (in 2004 and 2010), the seedling bank (in 2004 and 2010), and seed rain (from 2005-2015) in the Harvard Forest Hemlock Removal Experiment.

    In 2004, Kelley Sullivan and Aaron Ellison determined the distribution of seeds buried in the soil in the six hemlock and two hardwood stands, before canopy treatments were applied (data files hf105-01, hf105-02). In 2010, Elizabeth Farnsworth and Aaron Ellison examined the distribution of plant species present five years after the simulated hemlock removal experiment was performed and six years after the baseline, pre-treatment study of the seedbank (data files hf105-03, hf105-04, hf105-05). In the 2010 study, we hypothesized that the composition of the seed and seedling banks and seed rain would diverge among the two treatments and the controls, based on the differential impacts of harvesting versus adelgid attack on the standing vegetation. We further hypothesized that the older (deeper) strata of the seedbanks of the treatment plots would have been exhausted over time, thus yielding poor germination relative to the top strata that continually receive seed rain. Identical methods of characterizing the composition of the seedbank and the aboveground vegetation at seedbank core locations were applied in both 2004 and 2010. Additional comparisons were made with long-term data collected on overall plant species composition in the Simes plots (datasets HF 106, HF126), and with data on seed rain (data file hf105-05). This study provides a unique temporal documentation of changes in the seedbank, seed rain, and vegetation under conditions of a changing overstory.

  • Methods:

    In 2004, we located five randomly-chosen points in each of the 8 experimental plots in the Simes Tract (data file hf105-06). At each point, we censused all vascular plant species present in a 1-m2 plot centered on each point, and collected a single 60 x 60 cm x 20 cm deep soil core at each point.

    In 2010, we returned to the same points, and chose a new sample location within 2 m of the original location. We collected a single 15cm x 15cm x 20cm deep soil core at each point, and simultaneously censused all vascular plant species present in a 1-m2 subplot centered on each point; these same points were censused again on 15 August 2010 to ensure full detection of species with later phenologies. Data are reported as densities of each species per 0.01 ha. Forty-five taxa were positively identified in the field sample, with 43 identified to species in the field and 2 identified to genus only (seedlings of Crataegus sp. and Amelanchier sp.). Nomenclature follows Haines, A. 2011. Flora Novae Angliae: A Manual for the Identification of Native and Naturalized Higher Vascular Plants of New England. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

    Seed bank composition was assessed using the direct germination method. For both the 2004 and 2010 samples, we returned the soil cores within 5 hours to the lab for dissection by depth and planting. The cores were trimmed to 10cm x 10cm x 20cm deep blocks, then sliced into 2-cm depth increments. These samples were placed into separate 7.5 x 7.5-cm cells in a divided potting tray, each first lined with a 1-cm deep layer of milled sphagnum to facilitate drainage. One replicate reference cell for each of the cores was filled entirely with milled sphagnum and monitored for recruitment of “weedy” species present in the greenhouse seed rain. All flats of cells were placed in the Harvard Forest greenhouse at full light, watered twice daily, and fertilized once during the growing season with 0.5 tsp:2 gallons 20:20:20 fertilizer. Flats were randomly repositioned twice during the growing season.

    Seed bank composition was assessed using the direct germination method. Pots were monitored on a weekly to biweekly basis from 17 May 2010 to 5 September 2010, when no new germination was occurring and existing seedlings were beginning to senesce. Most newly-emerging seedlings were removed to prevent competition with later-emerging plants, except where removal would disturb existing, as-yet-unidentified seedlings. Certain larger specimens were out-planted to larger pots in September to ensure that root-binding would not affect their growth in season 2, or cause death. Unidentified specimens at the end of the first growing season were hardened off and maintained without watering from November to April, during which time greenhouse temperatures were kept above freezing. Surviving seedlings were monitored throughout summer 2005 or 2011 until reproduction occurred or until plants were mature enough to identify unambiguously.

    Forty-one positively identified species from the seed bank study were mounted on archival herbarium paper, labeled, and archived at the Harvard Forest Herbarium in 2010 and 2011. Six additional “unknown” vouchers were later annotated or determined to be replicates of positively identified taxa. Additional voucher photographs were taken and labeled. Only four taxa of 53 (7.5%) remained unidentified by the end of the experiment. In 2004, species identification was confirmed by Jerry Jenkins, Glenn Motzkin, and Elizabeth Farnsworth and nomenclature followed Gleason, H. A., and A. J. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. New York Botanic Garden Press, New York, NY. In 2011, species identifications were done by Elizabeth Farnsworth, and nomenclature followed Haines, A. 2011. Flora Novae Angliae: A Manual for the Identification of Native and Naturalized Higher Vascular Plants of New England. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

    For the seed rain, seeds were manually removed from litter collected in five litterfall baskets that were placed at random coordinates throughout the 90m x 90m plot (see details of litter baskets in HF161). Seeds were identified using keys in Montgomery, F. H. 1977. Seeds and fruits of plants of eastern Canada and northeastern United States. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada, and vouchers are stored in the Harvard Forest Herbarium. Representative individual seeds were weighed, and numbers of seeds in each sample were determined from mass of total samples. As of 2016, seeds are no longer sorted out from the litter baskets.

  • Use:

    This dataset is released to the public under Creative Commons license CC BY (Attribution). Please keep the designated contact person informed of any plans to use the dataset. Consultation or collaboration with the original investigators is strongly encouraged. Publications and data products that make use of the dataset must include proper acknowledgement.

  • Citation:

    Ellison A, Farnsworth E, Sullivan K. 2019. Seed Bank in Hemlock Removal Experiment at Harvard Forest 2004-2015. Harvard Forest Data Archive: HF105.

Detailed Metadata

hf105-01: seed bank 2004

  1. simes.plot: plot number of the Simes Tract Hemlock Removal Experiment
  2. replicate: sample code for each 60 x 60 x 20 soil sample in each plot. There were 5 samples/plot.
  3. x: x-coordinate location, in meters, of the sample. Each plot of the Simes Tract is 90 x 90 m. (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  4. y: y-coordinate location, in meters, of the sample. Each plot at the Simes Tract is 90 x 90 m. (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  5. depth: depth (in 2 cm increments) of the subsample taken from the soil sample for germination trials. Each 20-cm deep sample was divided into 10 2-cm thick samples. Value given is the lower depth of the subsample. (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  6. acru: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  7. bele: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  8. beni: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  9. bepa: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  10. prse: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  11. tsca: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. rhty: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  13. rhgl: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  14. rufl: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  15. rusp: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  16. rubus: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  17. sp: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  18. gapr: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  19. mire: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  20. vaan: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  21. amar: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  22. heca: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  23. hyca: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  24. hype: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  25. loin: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  26. lyci: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  27. lyqu: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  28. veth: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  29. maca: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  30. move: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  31. viso: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  32. caat: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  33. cade: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  34. cala: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  35. cape: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  36. casp: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  37. rhal: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  38. sccy: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  39. juca: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  40. jute: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  41. didi: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  42. feru: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  43. pacl: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  44. pala: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  45. poan: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  46. poaceae: number of seedlings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick sample (unit: number / missing value: NA)

hf105-02: understory vegetation 2004

  1. simes.plot: plot number of the Simes Tract Hemlock Removal Experiment
  2. replicate: sample code for each 60 x 60 x 20 soil sample in each plot. There were 5 samples/plot.
  3. x: x-coordinate location, in meters, of the sample. Each plot of the Simes Tract is 90 x 90 m. (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  4. y: y-coordinate location, in meters, of the sample. Each plot at the Simes Tract is 90 x 90 m. (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  5. depth: set to 0 to indicate understory (surface) vegetation
  6. acru: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  7. acsa: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  8. be: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  9. coam: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  10. osvi: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  11. pist: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. prse: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  13. quru: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  14. tsca: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  15. rufl: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  16. vaan: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  17. arnu: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  18. fram: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  19. maca: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  20. mevi: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  21. mire: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  22. smra: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  23. cape: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  24. jute: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  25. dasp: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  26. depu: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  27. drsp: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  28. deob: number of seedings that emerged in each 2-cm-thick subsample (unit: number / missing value: NA)

hf105-03: seed bank 2010

  1. block: ridge or valley
  2. plot: plot number of the Simes Tract Hemlock Removal Experiment
  3. treatment: treatment applied to the plot
    • girdled: all hemlocks girdled to simulate effects of hemlock woolly adelgid attack
    • logged: all hemlocks logged to simulate effects of salvage-logging
    • hemlock: hemlock-dominated plots in which all trees were left intact to simulate no woolly adelgid attack (hemlock controls)
    • hardwood: hardwood-dominated plots in which all trees were left intact, as comparison to hemlock-dominated forest tracts (hardwood controls)
    • blank: the replicate reference cell for each of the cores that was filled entirely with milled sphagnum and monitored for recruitment of “weedy” species present in the greenhouse seed rain
  4. replicate: sample code (A – E) for each 15cm x 15cm x 20cm (deep) soil sample in each plot. There were 5 samples/plot.
  5. depth: depth (in 2 cm increments, relative to soil surface, which is 0 cm) of the subsample taken from the soil sample for germination trials. Each 20-cm deep sample was divided into ten, 2-cm thick samples. Value given is the maximum depth of the subsample (in centimeters), or BLANK for the blank replicate reference cell for each of the cores was filled entirely with milled sphagnum and monitored for recruitment of “weedy” species present in the greenhouse seed rain. (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  6. bele: number of Betula lenta L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  7. mire: number of Mitchella repens L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  8. lyqu: number of Lysimachia quadrifolia L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  9. asdi: number of Aster cf divaricatus seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  10. ruoc: number of Rubus occidentalis L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  11. rual: number of Rubus allegheniensis Porter seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. rufl: number of Rubus flagellaris Willd. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  13. posi: number of Potentilla simplex Michx. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  14. cape: number of Carex pensylvanica Lam. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  15. gahi: number of Gaultheria hispidula seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  16. ruhi: number of Rubus hispidus L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  17. casp: number of Carex cf. ovales group seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  18. jubr: number of Juncus brevicaudatus (Engelm.) Fern. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  19. depu: number of Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) T. Moore seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  20. jute: number of Juncus tenuis Willd. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  21. viso: number of Viola sororia Willd. var. novae-angliae Duchesne seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  22. move: number of Mollugo verticillata L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  23. eugr: number of Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  24. arhi: number of Aralia hispida Vent. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  25. trre: number of Trifolium repens L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  26. diis: number of Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) Schreb. ex Muhl. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  27. diac: number of Dichanthelium acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C.A. Clark var. fasciculatum (Torr.) Freckmann seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  28. spto: number of Spiraea tomentosa L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  29. elob: number of Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) Schult. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  30. pist: number of Pinus strobus L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  31. vinu: number of Viburnum nudum L. var. cassinoides (L.) Torr. & A. Gray seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  32. tsca: number of Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  33. bepa: number of Betula papyrifera Marsh. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  34. cade: number of Carex debilis Michx. var. rudgei Bailey seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  35. aghy: number of Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) B.S.P. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  36. maca: number of Maianthemum canadense Desf. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  37. loin: number of Lobelia inflata L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  38. taof: number of Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  39. cala: number of Carex laxiflora L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  40. pham: number of Phytolacca americana L. var. americana seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  41. cope: number of Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coult. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  42. anco: number of Anthemis cotula L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  43. dicl: number of Dichanthelium clandestinum (L.) Gould seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  44. pono: number of Potentilla norvegica L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  45. acru: number of Acer rubrum L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  46. frvi: number of Fragaria virginiana Duchesne seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  47. veth: number of Verbascum thapsus L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  48. juef: number of Juncus effusus L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  49. juar: number of Juncus articulatus L. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  50. asac: number of Aster cf. acuminatus (outplanted) seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  51. prse: number of Prunus serotina Ehrh. var. serotina seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  52. vila: number of Viola labradorica Schrank seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  53. sccy: number of Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  54. pali: number of Panicum linearifolium Scribn. ex Nash seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  55. ruid: number of Rubus idaeus L. ssp. idaeus seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  56. pogr: number of Populus grandidentata Michx. seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  57. cadw: number of Carex deweyana Schweinitz seedlings germinating over the course of the experiment (unit: number / missing value: NA)

hf105-04: understory vegetation 2010

  1. date: data from both the May and August field sampling were combined; date shown is 2011-08-15
  2. block: ridge or valley
  3. plot: plot number of the Simes Tract Hemlock Removal Experiment
  4. treatment: treatment applied to the plot
    • girdled: all hemlocks girdled to simulate effects of hemlock woolly adelgid attack
    • logged: all hemlocks logged to simulate effects of salvage-logging
    • hemlock: hemlock-dominated plots in which all trees were left intact to simulate no woolly adelgid attack (hemlock controls)
    • hardwood: hardwood-dominated plots in which all trees were left intact, as comparison to hemlock-dominated forest tracts (hardwood controls)
  5. replicate: sample code (A – E) for each 15cm x 15cm x 20cm (deep) soil sample in each plot. There were 5 samples/plot
  6. depu: number of Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Michx.) T. Moore seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  7. mire: number of Mitchella repens L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  8. dede: number of Dendrolycopodium dendroideum (Michx.) A. Haines seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  9. maca: number of Maianthemum canadense Desf. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  10. acru: number of Acer rubrum L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  11. pist: number of Pinus strobus L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. arnu: number of Aralia nudicaulis L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  13. fagr: number of Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  14. trbo: number of Trientalis borealis Raf. ssp. borealis seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  15. vaan: number of Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  16. prse: number of Prunus serotina Ehrh. var. serotina seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  17. uvse: number of Uvularia sessilifolia L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  18. moun: number of Monotropa uniflora L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  19. tsca: number of Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  20. hulu: number of Huperzia lucidula (Michx.) Trevisan seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  21. trer: number of Trillium erectum L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  22. bele: number of Betula lenta L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  23. coco: number of Corylus cornuta Marsh. ssp. cornuta seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  24. cape: number of Carex pensylvanica Lam. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  25. quru: number of Quercus rubra L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  26. vaco: number of Vaccinium corymbosum L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  27. pham: number of Phytolacca americana L. var. americana seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  28. rual: number of Rubus allegheniensis Porter seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  29. arhi: number of Aralia hispida Vent. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  30. ruhi: number of Rubus hispidus L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  31. lyqu: number of Lysimachia quadrifolia L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  32. ruoc: number of Rubus occidentalis L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  33. beal: number of Betula alleghaniensis Brett. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  34. beth: number of Berberis thunbergii DC. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  35. bepa: number of Betula papyrifera Marsh. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  36. amsp: number of Amelanchier Medik. sp. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  37. drin: number of Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl. ex Willd.) Gray seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  38. gapr: number of Gaultheria procumbens L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  39. daco: number of Danthonia compressa Austin ex Peck seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  40. pano: number of Parathelypteris noveboracensis (L.) Ching seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  41. qual: number of Quercus alba L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  42. drca: number of Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H. P. Fuchs seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  43. crsp: number of Crataegus L. sp. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  44. cotr: number of Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  45. acsa: number of Acer saccharum Marsh. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  46. lycl: number of Lycopodium clavatum L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  47. mevi: number of Medeola virginiana L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  48. oscl: number of Osmunda claytoniana L. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  49. rufl: number of Rubus flagellaris Willd. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  50. cope: number of Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coult. seedlings identified in plot surrounding the core (unit: number / missing value: NA)

hf105-05: seed rain 2005-2015

  1. date: date of sample
  2. block: ridge or valley
  3. treatment: treatment applied to the plot
    • girdled: all hemlocks girdled to simulate effects of hemlock woolly adelgid attack
    • logged: all hemlocks logged to simulate effects of salvage-logging
    • hemlock: hemlock-dominated plots in which all trees were left intact to simulate no woolly adelgid attack (hemlock controls)
    • hardwood: hardwood-dominated plots in which all trees were left intact, as comparison to hemlock-dominated forest tracts (hardwood controls)
  4. plot: plot number of the Simes Tract Hemlock Removal Experiment
  5. basket: basket number, 1-5
  6. genus: genus
  7. species: species if known; otherwise “sp.”
  8. mass: total mass weighed (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  9. weighed.in: how the seeds were weighed
    • Seed Only: for large seeds
    • Small Envelope: for smaller seeds
    • Large Envelope: for large lots of seeds
  10. env.mass: average mass of small or large envelope (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  11. seeds.mass: mass of seed lot = mass – env.mass (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  12. ind.mass: average mass of individual seed of the species (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  13. seed.count: estimated number of seeds = Seed.mass.g/Ind.mass.g, rounded to nearest integer (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  14. seeds.m2: estimated number of seeds per square meter = seed.count x 9.01, rounded to nearest integer (unit: numberPerMeterSquared / missing value: NA)
  15. seed.count.method: method of estimating the number of seeds
    • actual count: the number of seeds were physically counted (this is done when there are 5 or fewer seeds of a particular species in a sample, starting in September 2010)
    • calculated (more than 5): the number of seeds were estimated based on the seed mass and the mass of a representative seed of that species (this is done when there are more than 5 seeds of a particular species in a sample)
    • no count: seeds not counted (Dec. 2005 – June 2010, plus a few other samples)
  16. note: notes about the sample

hf105-06: sample coordinates 2004, 2010

  1. year: year of sample (2004 or 2010)
  2. block: ridge or valley
  3. treatment: treatment applied to the plot
    • girdled: all hemlocks girdled to simulate effects of hemlock woolly adelgid attack
    • logged: all hemlocks logged to simulate effects of salvage-logging
    • hemlock: hemlock-dominated plots in which all trees were left intact to simulate no woolly adelgid attack (hemlock controls)
    • hardwood: hardwood-dominated plots in which all trees were left intact, as comparison to hemlock-dominated forest tracts (hardwood controls)
  4. plot: plot number of the Simes Tract Hemlock Removal Experiment
  5. replicate: replicate A through E; corresponds to Replicate in hf105-01 and hf105-03
  6. xcoord: x coordinate; sample location in meters (unit: meter / missing value: NA)
  7. ycoord: y coordinate; sample location in meters (unit: meter / missing value: NA)

hf105-07: species codes

  1. species.code: species code
  2. species.name: species name