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Harvard Forest Data Archive

HF089

Environment and History in a Rich Mesic Forest in Western Massachusetts 1999-2001

Related Publications

Data

Overview

  • Lead: Jesse Bellemare, Glenn Motzkin
  • Investigators: David Foster
  • Contact: David Foster
  • Start date: 1999
  • End date: 2001
  • Status: completed
  • Location: Western Massachusetts
  • Latitude: +42.0 to +42.7
  • Longitude: -73.4 to -72.4
  • Elevation:
  • Taxa:
  • Release date: 2006
  • Revisions:
  • EML file: knb-lter-hfr.89.16
  • DOI: digital object identifier
  • Related links:
  • Study type: short-term measurement
  • Research topic: physiological ecology, population dynamics and species interactions; regional studies; soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics
  • LTER core area: disturbance
  • Keywords: herbs, land use, seed dispersal, vegetation dynamics
  • Abstract:

    In rich mesic forests, modern vegetation varies among primary versus post-agricultural, secondary forests, in part as a result of differential rate and ability of forest herbs to colonize after disturbance. Species with seeds lacking morphological adaptations for dispersal (barochores) and those which produce seeds with elaisomes to encourage ant dispersal (myrmecochores) may remain less frequent in secondary forests for decades or more.

  • Methods:

    CS Detailed Methods

    Rich Mesic Forest (RMF), a northeastern variant of the species-rich Mixed Mesophytic Forest Type of eastern North America, is an Acer saccharum-dominated community typically associated with calcareous bedrock and nutrient-rich, mull humus soils. This study undertook a quantitative classification of the Rich Mesic Forests of the eastern edge of the Berkshire Plateau in western Massachusetts. Cluster analysis of vegetation data from ten primary forest and well-developed secondary forest sites identified two subtypes within the RMF community, the Dicentra-Polystichum Association and Allium-Caulophyllum Association. In addition, two classes were distinguished within the Dicentra-Polystichum Association. Ordination of vegetation data using detrended correspondence analysis identified increased soil pH and calcium concentrations as key environmental factors associated with the differentiation of RMF from the typical northern and transition hardwoods vegetation of the region. On sites with high soil pH and nutrients, vegetation variation was primarily associated with physiography, particularly the presence of exposed bedrock and solar insolation levels as controlled by slope and aspect.

    Vegetation and environmental conditions were assessed for 36 20 x 20 m plots in 10 primary and well-developed secondary Rich Mesic Forest stands in varying physiographic settings in western Massachusetts. Plots were sub-divided into four 10 x 10 m subplots (= 144 subplots) in which herb layer cover and environmental measurements were made and subsequently averaged for the whole plot. Nomenclature follows Gleason and Cronquist (1991). Live and dead trees at least 2.5 cm diameter at breast height were tallied for species, canopy position, and diameter at breast height (DBH). Herb layer species percent cover, including tree seedlings and shrubs were assessed using modified Braun-Blanquet cover classes: 0-1%, 1-12%, 12-50%, 50-75% and 75%+; cover of exposed bedrock, rocks, and coarse woody debris (CWD) was also estimated. All plant species less than 1 m in height, including woody taxa, are included in the herb layer data. However, records of Panax quinquefolius are not included in this data set. Aspect and slope were recorded in each subplot. To assess microtopography, terrain shape index (TSI) values were calculated by measuring slope in eight directions (N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, and NW). Seeps, streams, and a qualitative assessment of soil moisture class were noted. Distance to the nearest bedrock outcrop was estimated to within 5 meters up to 50 meters. Solar insolation for each plot during the month of May was calculated using a model developed by Ollinger et al. (1995) incorporating aspect, slope, elevation, latitude and longitude.

    Mineral soil samples (0-15 cm) were collected from the center of each plot using a 15 cm PVC cylindrical corer with an inside diameter of 5.1 cm. Samples were air-dried, and then oven dried at 105 deg C for 48 hours. Bulk density was calculated after samples were sieved to 2 mm. Sub-samples of each soil core were analyzed by Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH to determine total exchange capacity (TEC) and cation concentrations, pH, percent organic matter, and particle size distribution. Soil carbon and nitrogen content were measured on a Fisons C:N analyzer (Fisons Instruments, Beverly, MA, USA) at Harvard Forest after sub-samples were pulverized with mortar and pestle and oven-dried for 12 hours at 70 deg C.

    Agglomerative cluster analyses were used to classify plots into vegetation associations and classes. Data were ordinated (DCA; detrended correspondence analysis) to identify patterns of vegetation variation and to relate these to environmental gradients.

    LS Detailed Methods

    Rich Mesic Forests (RMF) are a species-rich northeastern variant of the Mixed Mesophytic Forest Type of eastern North America. To evaluate the relative importance of historical and environmental controls on RMF vegetation variation, this study investigated the effects of past agricultural land-use on the composition and structure of RMF in the towns of Conway and Shelburne, Massachusetts. The study area has a well-documented agricultural history beginning in the late 18th century with European settlement. During the 19th century up to 80% of the landscape was cleared for pasture and farmland. With the regional decline of agriculture in the late 19th century, natural reforestation has resulted in ~ 75% forest cover at present. Persistent compositional differences between continuously forested stands and post-agricultural forests indicate that distribution patterns for many species still strongly reflect the agricultural landscape of the 19th century, despite the current predominance of forest. A major factor driving modern RMF vegetation patterns is the ability and rate of colonization by forest herbs. In particular, species with seeds lacking morphological adaptations for dispersal and those which produce seeds with elaiosomes to encourage ant dispersal may remain less frequent in secondary forests for decades or more.

    To evaluate the relative influence of current environmental conditions and site history on forest communities, vegetation and soils were sampled in stands with varying land-use histories selected using the following criteria: (i) occurrence on easterly slopes, (ii) Acer saccharum dominant or codominant in the canopy or subcanopy, (iii) the presence of one or more RMF indicator species. One to six 10 x 10 m plots were randomly established in each stand dependent on areal extent and site heterogeneity. The plots were assigned to one of the three past land-use categories based on the historical maps and field evidence of land-use boundaries (e.g. stonewalls). A total of 61 plots were established in 34 stands: 18 plots were classified as primary forest, 32 as 19th century secondary forest, and 11 as 20th century secondary forest.

    Stand history was determined from various historical sources. The earliest maps of forest cover in the study area date from 1830 (Massachusetts State Archives, 1830). Forest cover in the early 20th century was derived from 1942 aerial photographs; land cover for this period was classified as: (i) mature forest or (ii) open land and early successional forest on abandoned fields. Modern forest cover information (1995-1997) was obtained from the MassGIS land-use classification. Using this series of maps, modern forests in the study area were classified as primary (i.e. forested in 1830 and in 1942); 19th Century secondary (i.e. open land in 1830, but forested by 1942); or 20th Century secondary (i.e. forest on land open or in early successional vegetation in 1942).

    In each plot, live and dead trees at least 2.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) were tallied for species, canopy position, and DBH. Percent cover was estimated for shrub and herb layer species using a modified version of the Braun-Blanquet scale: 0-1%, 1-12%, 12-50%, 50-75% and more than 75%. Nomenclature follows Gleason and Cronquist (1991). Cover of exposed bedrock, rocks and coarse woody debris (CWD) was estimated, and aspect and slope were measured. The presence of seeps and streams, and a qualitative estimate of soil moisture class, was noted. Terrain shape index (TSI) values were calculated by measuring mean slope in eight directions (N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, and NW). Solar insolation for May was calculated for each plot using a model incorporating slope, aspect, elevation, longitude and latitude (Ollinger et al. 1995). Distance to the nearest bedrock outcrop was estimated in 5-meter intervals up to 50 m.

    Herb layer data is taken from 61 10 x 10 m plots located in 34 forest stands with varying land-use histories in the towns of Conway and Shelburne, Massachusetts. All plant species less than 1 m in height, including woody taxa, are included in the herb layer data. However, records of Panax quinquefolius are not included in this data set. Herb layer data were ordinated to identify patterns of vegetation variation and associated environmental gradients using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA). A joint plot was used to relate environmental and historical variables to the unconstrained vegetation ordination. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to evaluate differences in environmental variables, canopy and subcanopy basal area, and herb layer species richness between primary and secondary forest. G-tests of independence were used to evaluate differences in species frequency among primary and secondary forest. To investigate the responses of individual herb layer species to environmental gradients and historical land-use, multiple logistic regression was used to model forest herb species occurrences as a function of six factors: soil C:N ratio, pH, moisture class, silt content, aspect and past land-use.

    Species Codes

    Canopy tree species are identified by a four letter code comprised of the first 2 letters of genus and first 2 letters of species. Nomenclature follows Gleason and Cronquist (1991).

    The codes for herb layer taxa are comprised of the first 4 letters of genus and first 4 letters of species. Exceptions to this system include the following: 1) In cases where taxa were only identified to a generic level, the first 4 letters of genus are used, followed by “spp” (= species). 2) Taxa which were tentatively identified to species are listed with a code followed by “-cf” (= circa forma). 3) Certain taxa were identified to a limited group of species within a genus; these taxa are indicated with an 8 letter species code followed by “-sl” (= sensu lato); the group of species encompassed by the sensu latu designation is indicated in this list. 4) For congeneric species pairs that could not be distinguished (e.g., Aster lanceolatus and A. lateriflorus), the species code is extended to include the first 4 letters of the second species name (e.g., Astelanc/late). All species less than 1 m in height, including woody taxa, are included in the herb layer data. Nomenclature follows Gleason and Cronquist (1991).

  • Use:

    This dataset is released to the public under Creative Commons license CC BY (Attribution). Please keep the designated contact person informed of any plans to use the dataset. Consultation or collaboration with the original investigators is strongly encouraged. Publications and data products that make use of the dataset must include proper acknowledgement.

  • Citation:

    Bellemare J, Motzkin G. 2006. Environment and History in a Rich Mesic Forest in Western Massachusetts 1999-2001. Harvard Forest Data Archive: HF089.

Detailed Metadata

hf089-01: species codes

  1. tree.herb: plant type
  2. code: species code
  3. species: species name

hf089-02: site codes

  1. code: two-letter site code
  2. site: site name

hf089-03: CS environment

  1. study: study type
    • CS: Classification Study
  2. site.plot: a unique alphanumeric identifier for each of the 36 plots sampled in the study. The first two letters identify the site where the plot was located (see site codes). The next two characters identify the plot number at the site.
  3. charcoal: presence of charcoal
    • 0: no charcoal found while sieving soil samples from subplots
    • 1: macroscopic charcoal fragments present in at least one soil sample from subplots when sieved to 2 mm for lab analysis
  4. bedrock: distance to nearest bedrock exposure from center of plot
    • 1: 0-5m
    • 2: 5-10m
    • 3: 10-15m
    • 4: 15-20m
    • 5: 20-25m
    • 6: 25-30m
    • 7: 30-35m
    • 8: 35-40m
    • 9: 40-45m
    • 10: 45-50m
    • 11: more than 50m
  5. aspect.deg: mean aspect of plot in degrees (averaged across the 4 subplots) (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  6. slope.deg: mean slope of plot in degrees (averaged across the 4 subplots) (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  7. insol.may: insolation during the month of May in MJ/m^2*day, as calculated using a model developed by Ollinger et al. (1995). See Ollinger, S.V., J.D. Aber, C.A. Federer, G.M. Lovett, and J. Ellis. 1995. Modeling physical and chemical climatic variables across the northeastern U.S. for a Geographic Information System. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NE-191. (unit: megajoulePerMeterSquaredPerDay / missing value: NA)
  8. c.n: mean soil carbon to nitrogen ratio; Fisons C:N analyzer, Harvard Forest (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  9. n: mean soil nitrogen percent; Fisons C:N analyzer, Harvard Forest (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  10. c: mean soil carbon percent; Fisons C:N analyzer, Harvard Forest (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  11. seep: presence of seep
    • 0: no seep present in plot
    • 1: seep(s) present in plot
  12. stream: presence of streams
    • 0: no stream crossing plot
    • 1: stream crossing plot (all were ephemeral streams)
  13. pit.mnd: qualitative estimate of pit & mound topography within plot
    • 0: no pit or mound topography or “too steep”
    • 1: slight
    • 2: moderate
    • 3: heavy pit and mound topography
  14. moisture: qualitative estimate of soil moisture status in plot
    • 1: well-drained
    • 2: somewhat moist
    • 3: moist
  15. tsi: average terrain shape index value; calculated based upon measurements of slope in eight directions (N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW). Positive values indicate concave topography within plot, negative values indicate convex topography within plot. See: McNab, W.H. 1989. Terrain Shape Index: quantifying effect of minor landforms on tree height. Forest Science, 35, 91-104. (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  16. landscape: qualitative assessment of landscape position of the plot
    • 1: upper slope
    • 2: step in upper slope
    • 3: mid-slope
    • 4: mid-slope step
    • 5: lower slope
    • 6: lower slope step
    • 7: toe slope
  17. oicm: average depth of Oi in organic layer (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  18. oecm: average depth of Oe in organic layer (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  19. oacm: average depth of Oa in organic layer (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  20. ototal: average total depth of O layer in cm (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  21. acm: average depth of A horizon in cm (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  22. ar: presence of A and B horizons
    • 0: A and B horizons present throughout plot
    • 1: A horizon only over shallow bedrock in some portions of plot
  23. bulk.density: mean bulk density of soil (g/cm^3) collected in plot (averaged across the 4 subplots) (unit: gramsPerCubicCentimeter / missing value: NA)
  24. cut.ba: approximate estimate of basal area removed from plot by past logging, based on estimates of cut stump basal area present within plot (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  25. bedrock.per: estimated percent cover of bedrock in plot (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  26. rock.per: estimated percent cover of rocks and boulders in plot, not appearing to be physically connected to underlying bedrock (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  27. cwd.per: estimated percent cover of coarse woody debris (CWD - fallen trees and branches) in plot (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  28. tec: total exchange capacity of Soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  29. ph: soil pH - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  30. h: concentration of hydrogen ions in the soil, from pH value (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  31. smp.buffer: SMP Buffer pH of Soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  32. om.per: percent soil organic matter - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  33. enr: estimated nitrogen release of soil (lb/A) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  34. sol.sulf: soluble sulfur in soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  35. ee: easily extractable phosphorous (lb/A) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  36. ee.ppm: easily extractable phosphorous (ppm) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  37. ca: soil calcium content (lb/A) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  38. ca.ppm: soil calcium content (ppm) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  39. mg: soil magnesium content (lb/A) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  40. mg.ppm: soil magnesium content (ppm) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  41. k: soil potassium content (lb/A) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  42. k.ppm: soil potassium content (ppm) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  43. na: soil sodium content (lb/A) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  44. na.ppm: soil sodium content (ppm) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  45. ca.pct: base saturation percent of calcium - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  46. mg.pct: base saturation percent of magnesium - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  47. k.pct: base saturation percent of potassium - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  48. na.pct: base saturation percent of sodium - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  49. h.pct: base saturation percent of hydrogen - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  50. b.ppm: boron ppm in soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  51. fe.ppm: iron ppm in soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  52. mn.ppm: manganese ppm in soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  53. cu.ppm: copper ppm in soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  54. zn.ppm: zinc ppm in soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  55. al.ppm: aluminum ppm in soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  56. sand: percent soil sand content - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  57. clay: percent soil clay content - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  58. silt: percent soil silt content - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)

hf089-04: CS herb

  1. study: study type
    • CS: Classification Study
  2. site.plot: a unique alphanumeric identifier for each of the 36 plots sampled in the study. The first two letters identify the site where the plot was located (see site codes). The next two characters identify the plot number at the site.
  3. species: species code
  4. cover.per: mean percent cover for the species across the 4 subplots of each 20 x 20 m plot. The mean was calculated based on the midpoint of the cover classes estimated in each 10 x 10 m subplot. (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)

hf089-05: CS tree

  1. study: study type
    • CS: Classification Study
  2. site.plot: unique alpha-numeric code identifying each of the 36 plots sampled. The first two letters identify the site where the plot was located (see site codes). The next two characters identify the plot number at the site.
  3. species: species code. Canopy and sub-canopy trees are identified by a “C-” or “S-”, respectively, preceding the four letter species code (see species codes). Dead trees are identified with a “-Dd” following the 4 letter species code. The canopy position of dead trees was not assessed.
  4. ba: total basal area (m2/ha) for each species and canopy position (unit: meterSquaredPerHectare / missing value: NA)
  5. total.ba: total basal area (m2/ha) for the plot, including all tree species and strata (canopy and subcanopy) (unit: meterSquaredPerHectare / missing value: NA)

hf089-06: LS environment

  1. study: study type
    • LS: Land-Use Study
  2. site.plot: unique alpha-numeric code identifying each plot
  3. lu.code: historical land-use category of plot
    • 1: primary forest
    • 2: 19th century secondary forest
    • 3: 20th century forest
  4. charcoal: presence of charcoal
    • 0: no charcoal found while sieving soil sample
    • 1: macroscopic charcoal fragments present in soil sample when sieved to 2 mm for lab analysis
  5. bedrock: distance to nearest bedrock exposure from center of plot
    • 1: 0-5m
    • 2: 5-10m
    • 3: 10-15m
    • 4: 15-20m
    • 5: 20-25m
    • 6: 25-30m
    • 7: 30-35m
    • 8: 35-40m
    • 9: 40-45m
    • 10: 45-50m
    • 11: more than 50m
  6. aspect.deg: mean aspect of plot in degrees (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  7. slope.deg: mean slope of plot in degrees (unit: degree / missing value: NA)
  8. insol.may: insolation during the month of May in MJ/m^2*day, as calculated using a model developed by Ollinger et al. (1995) (unit: megajoulePerMeterSquaredPerDay / missing value: NA)
  9. c.n: mean soil carbon to nitrogen ratio; Fisons C:N analyzer, Harvard Forest (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  10. n: mean soil nitrogen percent; Fisons C:N analyzer, Harvard Forest (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  11. c: mean soil carbon percent; Fisons C:N analyzer, Harvard Forest (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  12. seep: presence of seep
    • 0: no seep present in plot
    • 1: seep(s) present in plot
  13. stream: presence of streams
    • 0: no stream crossing plot
    • 1: stream crossing plot (all were ephemeral streams)
  14. pit.mnd: qualitative estimate of pit & mound topography within plot
    • 0: no pit or mound topography or “too steep”
    • 1: slight
    • 2: moderate
    • 3: heavy pit and mound topography
  15. moisture: qualitative estimate of soil moisture status in plot
    • 1: well-drained
    • 2: somewhat moist
    • 3: moist
  16. tsi: average terrain shape index value; calculated based upon measurements of slope in eight directions (N, NE, E, SE, S, SW, W, NW). Positive values indicate concave topography within plot, negative values indicate convex topography within plot. See: McNab, W.H. 1989. Terrain Shape Index: quantifying effect of minor landforms on tree height. Forest Science, 35, 91-104. (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  17. landscape: qualitative assessment of landscape position of the plot
    • 1: upper slope
    • 2: step in upper slope
    • 3: mid-slope
    • 4: mid-slope step
    • 5: lower slope
    • 6: lower slope step
    • 7: toe slope
  18. oicm: average depth of Oi in organic layer (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  19. oecm: average depth of Oe in organic layer (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  20. oacm: average depth of Oa in organic layer (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  21. ototal: average total depth of O layer (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  22. acm: average depth of A horizon (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  23. ar: presence of A and B horizons
    • 0: A and B horizons present throughout plot
    • 1: A horizon only over shallow bedrock in some portions of plot
  24. bulk.density: mean bulk density of soil (g/cm^3) collected in plot (unit: gramsPerCubicCentimeter / missing value: NA)
  25. cut.ba: approximate estimate of basal area removed from plot by past logging, based on estimates of cut stump basal area present within plot (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  26. bedrock.per: estimated percent cover of bedrock in plot (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  27. rock.per: estimated percent cover of rocks and boulders in plot, not appearing to be physically connected to underlying bedrock (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  28. cwd.per: estimated percent cover of coarse woody debris (CWD - fallen trees and branches) in plot (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  29. baresoil.per: estimated percent cover of bare or exposed mineral soil, not covered by leaf litter, rocks or coarse woody debris (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  30. tec: total exchange capacity of Soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  31. ph: soil pH - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  32. h: concentration of hydrogen ions in the soil, from pH value (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  33. smp.buffer: SMP Buffer pH of Soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  34. om.per: percent soil organic matter - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  35. enr: estimated nitrogen release of soil (lb/A) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  36. sol.sulf: soluble sulfur in soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  37. ee: easily extractable phosphorous (lb/A) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  38. ee.ppm: easily extractable phosphorous (ppm) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  39. ca: soil calcium content (lb/A) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  40. ca.ppm: soil calcium content (ppm) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  41. mg: soil magnesium content (lb/A) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  42. mg.ppm: soil magnesium content (ppm) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  43. k: soil potassium content (lb/A) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  44. k.ppm: soil potassium content (ppm) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  45. na: soil sodium content (lb/A) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  46. na.ppm: soil sodium content (ppm) - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  47. ca.pct: base saturation percent of calcium - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  48. mg.pct: base saturation percent of magnesium - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  49. k.pct: base saturation percent of potassium - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  50. na.pct: base saturation percent of sodium - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  51. h.pct: base saturation percent of hydrogen - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  52. b.ppm: boron ppm in soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  53. fe.ppm: iron ppm in soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  54. mn.ppm: manganese ppm in soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  55. cu.ppm: copper ppm in soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  56. zn.ppm: zinc ppm in soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  57. al.ppm: aluminum ppm in soil - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  58. clay: percent soil clay content - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  59. silt: percent soil silt content - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)
  60. sand: percent soil sand content - Brookside Laboratories, New Knoxville, OH (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)

hf089-07: LS herb

  1. study: study type
    • LS: Land-Use Study
  2. site.plot: unique alpha-numeric code identifying each plot
  3. species: species code
  4. cover.per: cover values for each species. In each plot, the percent cover of herb layer taxa was estimated using a modified version of the Braun-Blanquet scale.
    • 0: absent
    • 1: 0-1%
    • 2: 1-12%
    • 3: 12-50%
    • 4: 50-75%
    • 5: more than 75%

hf089-08: LS tree

  1. study: study type
    • LS: Land-Use Study
  2. site.plot: unique alpha-numeric code identifying each plot
  3. species: species code. Canopy and sub-canopy trees are identified by a “C-” or “S-”, respectively, preceding the four letter species code (see species codes). Dead trees are identified with a “-Dd” following the 4 letter species code. The canopy position of dead trees was not assessed.
  4. ba: total basal area (m2/ha) for each species and canopy position (unit: meterSquaredPerHectare / missing value: NA)
  5. total.ba: total basal area (m2/ha) for the plot, including all tree species and strata (canopy and subcanopy) (unit: meterSquaredPerHectare / missing value: NA)