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Harvard Forest Data Archive

HF061

Impacts of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid at the Arnold Arboretum 2004-2007

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Data

Overview

  • Lead: David Orwig, David Foster
  • Investigators: Robert Cook, Peter Del Tredici, Heidi Lux, Richard Schulhof
  • Contact: David Orwig
  • Start date: 2004
  • End date: 2007
  • Status: completed
  • Location: Arnold Arboretum (Jamaica Plain MA)
  • Latitude: +42.29754
  • Longitude: -71.12413
  • Elevation: 52 meter
  • Taxa: Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid), Betula lenta (black birch), Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock)
  • Release date: 2009
  • Revisions:
  • EML file: knb-lter-hfr.61.19
  • DOI: digital object identifier
  • Related links:
  • Study type: long-term measurement
  • Research topic: invasive plants, pests and pathogens; regional studies; soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics
  • LTER core area: disturbance
  • Keywords: hemlock, hemlock woolly adelgid, successional dynamics, timber harvest, tree mortality, urban
  • Abstract:

    Hemlock Hill at Harvard University's Arnold Arboretum is located in Jamaica Plain and has long been considered a remnant of the forest primeval in the heart of Boston. Eastern hemlocks have dominated the flanks and crest of this hill for centuries, despite experiencing many past disturbances. Following the 1997 snowstorm, the introduced hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) was discovered on downed branches. Since the discovery of HWA at the Arboretum, an action committee was formed to develop plans for managing Hemlock Hill to meet the new threat. Over 1800 hemlock trees were tagged, measured for diameter, assigned a crown health rating, and mapped with GPS coordinates. Various chemical and biological control treatments were attempted to control the spread of HWA at the arboretum, with mixed success. From 1998 to 2002, 263 trees have died or were removed due to poor health. Of the remaining 1600+ trees, 70% are rated as being in poor condition. Since this is a heavily used portion of the Arboretum, which is part of the Boston Parks Department, the decision has been made to remove many of the dead and dying trees to reduce risks posed to the general public by falling limbs. This unfortunate turn of events provides us with an unusual opportunity to examine the environmental impacts of hemlock death and hemlock removal in an urban environment, including soil nutrient cycling, microclimate changes, and vegetation succession, especially the spread of invasive species. During 2004, six 15 x 15 m plots were fenced off, and baseline data on soil nutrient cycling, microclimate, and vegetation information was collected from each. Analyses of these baseline data are underway. Hemlocks are currently being removed from 4 plots, and 2 will remain untouched as control plots. Slash in the cut plots is either being chipped and left on site or removed so that we can investigate what impact these post-cut inputs have on ecosystem and vegetation trajectories. We will continue with data collection on vegetation and ecosystem parameters following harvesting, especially the spread of invasive plant species. Data from this project will provide a nice comparison to the rural cutting and girdling that is ongoing at HF this winter (see Barker-Plotkin et al. abstract). Simultaneously, we are investigating the resistance of Chinese hemlock (Tsuga chinensis) to HWA. This species, which was planted on Hemlock Hill in 1999, continues to demonstrate resistance to HWA and plantings have begun on some sections of the hill.

  • Methods:

    Nitrogen mineralization was measured using 4 closed-topped cores at each of six 15 x 15 m plots. Sampling occurred at 5-week intervals during each growing season with one set of cores left over winter. An additional assessment of forest floor N availability and mobility was determined from mixed-bed cation + anion resin bags that were buried for 6-month intervals at the organic layer-mineral layer interface (ca. 5 cm) in each sampling plot. Soil temperature at 1 and 5 cm depths were measured at each soil sampling plot every 30 minutes throughout the growing season using iButton temperature data loggers.

    Soil samples were returned to the laboratory on ice and processed the next day. Organic and mineral soils were passed through a 5.0 mm mesh screen, weighed for total mass, and subsampled for gravimetric moisture and inorganic N. NH4-N and NO3-N were extracted from all soils using 1M KCl and from resin bags using 2M KCl and concentrations were determined colorimetrically with a Lachat flow-injection 8500 autoanalyzer. We determined the following properties of soils collected during our initial sampling at each site: organic matter by loss on ignition (5.5 hrs at 550 deg C), pH in a soil and CaCl2 slurry (1:10 organic soil:solution; 1:4 mineral soil:solution), and total C and N content by dry combustion with our Fisons CHN autoanalyzer. Soil texture texture was determined on mineral soils in each subplot. Bulk density of organic and mineral horizons was determined from dried samples from each subplot using a soil sampling corer of known volume. Remaining organic and mineral soils were air-dried and stored in our sample archive.

    Vegetation was sampled in six 15 x 15 m plots systematically located across the northern slope of Hemlock Hill. Prior to cutting, all trees (stems at least 8 cm dbh) were tagged, measured for diameter, assigned a crown health rating, and mapped with GPS coordinates. The presence of all vascular plant species in each plot were recorded, along with slope, aspect, and topographic position, and saplings (less than 8 cm dbh and more than 1.4 m tall) were tallied by species. Ten 1-m2 subplots were established at randomly selected subplot (5 x 5 m) corners set up for soils analyses (see below) to assess understory vegetation. In each subplot, percent cover of seedling, herb, and shrub species were estimated using a Braun-Blanquet scale.

  • Use:

    This dataset is released to the public under Creative Commons license CC BY (Attribution). Please keep the designated contact person informed of any plans to use the dataset. Consultation or collaboration with the original investigators is strongly encouraged. Publications and data products that make use of the dataset must include proper acknowledgement.

  • Citation:

    Orwig D, Foster D. 2009. Impacts of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid at the Arnold Arboretum 2004-2007. Harvard Forest Data Archive: HF061.

Detailed Metadata

hf061-01: soil bulk density

  1. plot: number of plot (1-6)
  2. subplot: number of subplot (2-48). Each plot has 2 subplots, where samples were collected.
  3. horizon: soil horizon. samples were separated into mineral (M) and organic (O) horizons at each subplot.
    • M: mineral
    • O: organic
  4. core.length: length of soil core (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  5. dry.mass: air dry weight of soils (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  6. bulk.density: bulk density (unit: gramsPerCubicCentimeter / missing value: NA)

hf061-02: soil temperature

  1. datetime: date and time of collection
  2. year: collection year for data set. Soil temperatures are collected April-October.
  3. month: month
  4. day: day of month
  5. time: time, 12-hour
  6. am.pm: am or pm
  7. site: site code. See site description data for additional information on sites and codes.
    • C1: Control 1
    • C2: Control 2
    • C3: Control 3
    • C4: Control 4
    • CH1: Chipped 1
    • CH2: Chipped 2
    • CH3: Chipped 3
    • CH4: Chipped 4
    • L1: Logged 1
    • L2: Logged 2
    • L3: logged 3
    • L4: Logged 4
  8. horizon: soil horizon
    • ORG: organic
    • MIN: mineral
  9. temp: average hourly soil temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)

hf061-03: soil moisture

  1. year: year of sample collection
  2. month: month when sample was collected, actual dates vary from year to year.
  3. hor: soil horizon
    • O: organic
    • M: mineral
  4. plot: number of 1 x 1 m subplot within each plot
  5. treatment: experimental manipulation
    • C: Control
    • L: Logged
    • Ch: Chipped
  6. moisture: total evaporable moisture content of sample for 2004, 2005 and 2006. (unit: gram / missing value: NA)

hf061-04: soil pH

  1. plot: number of plot (1-6)
  2. sub: number of subplot (2-51). Each plot has 4 subplots, where samples were collected.
  3. trmt: type of treatment applied to the plot
  4. horizon: soil horizon
    • M: mineral
    • O: organic
  5. avg.ph: average soil pH of 2 replicate samples (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)

hf061-05: soil carbon and nitrogen

  1. plot: number of plot (1-6)
  2. sub: number of subplot (2-51)
  3. horizon: soil horizon
    • M: mineral
    • O: organic
  4. c.n: index of the ratio of total C (mg C/g resin) divided by total N (mg N/g resin) (unit: milligramPerGram / missing value: NA)

hf061-06: nitrogen mineralization

  1. year: sample collection year
  2. hor: soil horizon
    • O: organic
    • M: mineral
  3. subplot: subplot. There are 4 subplots in each plot (1-32)
  4. treatment: experimental Treatment
    • C: Control
    • L: Logged
    • Ch: Chipped
  5. core.in: date soil incubation began , in situ
  6. core.out: date soil care incubation ended
  7. incubation: number of days Final core was in the soil (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  8. no3.n: final core – initial core extracted Nitrogen in the form of nitrate (unit: gramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  9. nh4.n: final core – initial core extracted Nitrogen in the form of ammonium (unit: milligramPerKilogram / missing value: NA)
  10. no3.n.area: final core – initial core extracted Nitrogen in the form of ammonium (unit: kilogramsPerHectare / missing value: NA)
  11. nh4.n.area: final core – initial core extracted Nitrogen in the form of nitrate (unit: kilogramsPerHectare / missing value: NA)

hf061-07: resin data

  1. season: season. Resin bags are deployed in the soil from May-October (GS) and October- May (OW). Year values are the sum of the growing season and the following winter.
    • OW: over winter
    • GS: growing season
    • YEAR: year
  2. start.date: start date
  3. end.date: end date
  4. plot: plot number of 15x15 m ( n = 2)
  5. treatment: experimental treatment applied to each plot
    • C: Control
    • L: Logged
    • Ch: Hemlock chips applied
  6. nh4.n: Nitrogen in the form of ammonium captured in resin. Values are the average of values from 4 resin bags in each plot. (unit: microgramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  7. no3.n: Nitrogen in the form of nitrate captured in resin. Values are the average of values from 4 resin bags in each plot. (unit: microgramsPerGram / missing value: NA)
  8. ion.n: Ammonium + Nitrate captured in resin. Values are the average of values from 4 resin bags in each plot. (unit: microgramsPerGram / missing value: NA)

hf061-08: seedling density

  1. year: year sample was taken
  2. date.sampled: date sampled
  3. plot: number of plot (1-6)
  4. subplot: number of subplot (1-211). Each plot has 10, 1x1 m subplots, where samples were collected.
  5. species: species code (first two letters of Genus and species). See species key.
  6. density: seedling density (unit: number / missing value: NA)

hf061-09: cover

  1. veg.type: vegetation type
    • seedling: Tree Seedling
    • shrub: Shrub
    • herb: Herbacecous
    • fern: Ferns and Allies
  2. year: year sample was taken
  3. date.sampled: date sampled
  4. plot: number of plot (1-6)
  5. subplot: number of subplot (1-211). Each plot has 10, 1x1 m subplots, where samples were collected.
  6. species: species code (first two letters of Genus and species). See species key
  7. cover: percent cover using a Braun-Blanquet scale (unit: dimensionless / missing value: NA)

hf061-10: species key

  1. veg.type: vegetation type
  2. latin.abbr: Latin abbreviation (first two letters of Genus and species)
  3. latin.comp: complete Latin name
  4. common.name: common name