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Harvard Forest Data Archive

HF035

Linking Community Dynamics and Ecosystem Function at Harvard Forest 1996-2000

Related Publications

Data

Overview

  • Lead: Sebastian Catovsky, Fakhri Bazzaz
  • Investigators:
  • Contact: Emery Boose
  • Start date: 1996
  • End date: 2000
  • Status: completed
  • Location: Prospect Hill Tract (Harvard Forest)
  • Latitude: +42.53
  • Longitude: -72.18
  • Elevation: 340 meter
  • Taxa: Acer rubrum (red maple), Acer saccharum (sugar maple), Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch), Picea rubra (red spruce), Pinus strobus (white pine), Tsuga canadensis (hemlock)
  • Release date: 2000
  • Revisions:
  • EML file: knb-lter-hfr.35.19
  • DOI: digital object identifier
  • Related links:
  • Study type: short-term measurement
  • Research topic: physiological ecology, population dynamics and species interactions
  • LTER core area: populations, disturbance
  • Keywords: community patterns, litter, nitrogen, regeneration
  • Abstract:

    Human activities are effecting profound changes in the structure and function of natural ecosystems. A comprehensive understanding of current ecosystem dynamics and future responses to global change requires an integrated investigation of ecological processes at many levels of organization. My thesis research addressed this goal by examining interactions between community- and ecosystem-level dynamics in mixed conifer broad-leaved forests in eastern North America. I addressed the nature of canopy-seedling feedbacks in mixed forests by relating seedling regeneration patterns in contrasting stand types to understory conditions (EXPERIMENT 1), and by directly manipulating resource availability to separate the individual effects of particular resources (EXPERIMENT 2). To investigate how nitrogen deposition will influence future forest composition, I examined the impact of increased nitrogen availability on regeneration of both coniferous and broad-leaved tree species under both closed canopy (EXPERIMENT 3) and simulated gap (EXPERIMENT 4) conditions. Future changes in forest composition might then influence whole-ecosystem productivity. I used two scaling approaches (leaf-level aggregation, EXPERIMENT 5; whole-tree sap flow, EXPERIMENT 6), I examined how the dominant coniferous and broad-leaved species in mixed temperate forests differed in their contributions to canopy-level photosynthesis.

  • Methods:

    Experiments were conducted on the Prospect Hill Tract of the Harvard Forest using common conifer (white pine, hemlock, red spruce) and deciduous (red maple, sugar maple, yellow birch) tree species.

  • Use:

    This dataset is released to the public under Creative Commons license CC BY (Attribution). Please keep the designated contact person informed of any plans to use the dataset. Consultation or collaboration with the original investigators is strongly encouraged. Publications and data products that make use of the dataset must include proper acknowledgement.

  • Citation:

    Catovsky S, Bazzaz F. 2000. Linking Community Dynamics and Ecosystem Function at Harvard Forest 1996-2000. Harvard Forest Data Archive: HF035.

Detailed Metadata

hf035-01: exp 1 - seedling demography

  1. year: year of study (1997 - 1999)
  2. stand: stand type (Hemlock, Red oak), with dominant species contributing more than 50 % basal area
    • Hemlock: Hemlock
    • Red oak: Red oak
  3. site: site number
  4. plot: plot number
  5. species: species code
    • ACRU: red maple
    • BEAL: birch
    • PIST: white pine
    • QURU: red oak
    • TSCA: hemlock
  6. cohort: month that seedlings emerged
    • June: June
    • July: July
    • Aug: August
  7. june: number of surviving seedlings in each cohort in June (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  8. july: number of surviving seedlings in each cohort in July (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  9. aug: number of surviving seedlings in each cohort in August (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  10. sept: number of surviving seedlings in each cohort in September (unit: number / missing value: NA)

hf035-02: exp 1 - seedling age structure

  1. year: year of study (1997 - 1999)
  2. stand: stand type (Hemlock, Red oak), with dominant species contributing more than 50 % basal area
    • Hemlock: Hemlock
    • Red oak: Red oak
  3. site: site number
  4. plot: plot number
  5. species: species code
    • ACRU: red maple
    • BEAL: birch
    • PIST: white pine
    • QURU: red oak
    • TSCA: hemlock
  6. age1: number of one year old seedlings at end of growing season (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  7. age2: number of two year old seedlings at end of growing season (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  8. age3: number of three year old seedlings at end of growing season (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  9. age4: number of four year old seedlings at end of growing season (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  10. age5: number of five year old seedlings at end of growing season (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  11. age6: number of six year old seedlings at end of growing season (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. age7: number of seven year old seedlings at end of growing season (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  13. age.over7: number of seedlings older than seven years old but smaller than 50 cm height (i.e., saplings) at end of growing season (unit: number / missing value: NA)

hf035-03: exp 1 - plot environmental conditions

  1. stand: stand type (Hemlock, Red oak), with dominant species contributing more than 50 % basal area
    • Hemlock: Hemlock
    • Red oak: Red oak
  2. site: site number
  3. plot: plot number
  4. per.par.1m: light availability at 1 m height (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  5. per.par.5cm: light availability at 5 cm height (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  6. mineralization: nitrogen mineralization rate as assessed by buried bag technique (unit: milligramPerKilogramPerMonth / missing value: NA)
  7. resin.nh: ammonium availability assessed by ion exchange resin bags (unit: milligramPerKilogram / missing value: NA)
  8. resin.no: nitrate availability assessed by ion exchange resin bags (unit: milligramPerKilogram / missing value: NA)
  9. o.water: volumetric water content averaged over 1997 and 1999 in O horizon (unit: cubicCentimetersPerCubicCentimeters / missing value: NA)
  10. min.water: volumetric water content averaged over 1997 and 1999 in mineral horizon (to 15 cm depth) (unit: cubicCentimetersPerCubicCentimeters / missing value: NA)
  11. ph: soil pH in O horizon (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. o.depth: depth of O horizon (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  13. litter.d: depth of litter layer (unit: centimeter / missing value: NA)
  14. conifer.litter: dry weight of conifer litter fall (unit: gramsPerSquareMeter / missing value: NA)
  15. broad.litter: Dry weight of broad-leaved litter fall (unit: gramsPerSquareMeter / missing value: NA)

hf035-04: exp 1 - seed rain

  1. year: year of collection (1997, 1998)
  2. stand: stand type (Hemlock, Red oak), with dominant species contributing more than 50 % basal area
    • Hemlock: Hemlock
    • Red oak: Red oak
  3. site: site number
  4. plot: plot number
  5. species: species code
    • ACRU: red maple
    • BEAL: yellow/black birch
    • BEPA: paper/grey birch
    • QURU: red oak
    • TSCA: hemlock
  6. rain: seed rain adjacent to plot (unit: squareMeter / missing value: NA)

hf035-05: exp 2 - seedling demography and growth

  1. transect: transect number
  2. plot: plot number
  3. light: light treatment
    • High: 50 % PAR
    • Low: 1.5 % PAR
  4. soil: soil treatments
    • Control: control
    • Nitrogen: 5 g N m-2 yr-1
    • pH: 1 Kg lime m-2 yr-1
  5. species: species codes
    • BEAL: birch
    • Herb: blackberry, wintergreen, blueberry
    • PIST: white pine
    • TSCA: hemlock
  6. emerging: number of seedlings per soil divot coming up from soil seed bank (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  7. surviving: number of seedlings surviving until the end of the growing season (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  8. biomass: mean biomass (g) of seedlings surviving until end of growing season; NA shows no seedlings survived (unit: gram / missing value: NA)

hf035-06: exp 3 - seedling demography

  1. treatment: experimental treatments
    • Seed addition: seed addition
    • Natural regeneration: natural regeneration
    • Planted seedlings: planted seedlings
  2. year: year of study (1998, 1999)
  3. stand: stand type (Hemlock, Red oak), with dominant species contributing more than 50 % basal area
    • Hemlock: Hemlock
    • Red oak: Red oak
  4. site: site number
  5. nitrogen: Nitrogen addition level
    • 0: no nitrogen added
    • 2: 2.5 g N m-2 yr-1 added
    • 7: 7.5 g N m-2 yr-1 added
  6. plot: plot number
  7. species: species code
    • ACRU: red maple
    • ACSA: sugar maple
    • BEAL: birch
    • PIRU: red spruce
    • PIST: white pine
    • TSCA: hemlock
  8. age: seedling age (1 to 2 years old)
  9. cohort: month that seedlings emerged
    • July: July
    • June: June
    • Aug: August
    • NA: seedlings more than one year old that no longer are assigned to a cohort
  10. june: number of surviving seedlings in each cohort in June (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  11. july: number of surviving seedlings in each cohort in July (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. aug: number of surviving seedlings in each cohort in August (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  13. sept: number of surviving seedlings in each cohort in September (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  14. oct: number of surviving seedlings in each cohort in October (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  15. winter: number of surviving seedlings in each cohort over winter (unit: number / missing value: NA)

hf035-07: exp 3 - seedling growth

  1. treatment: experimental treatments
    • Seed addition: seed addition
    • Natural regeneration: natural regeneration
    • Planted seedlings: planted seedlings
  2. stand: stand type (Hemlock, Red oak), with dominant species contributing more than 50 % basal area
    • Hemlock: Hemlock
    • Red oak: Red oak
  3. site: site number
  4. nitrogen: Nitrogen addition level
    • 0: no nitrogen added
    • 2: 2.5 g N m-2 yr-1 added
    • 7: 7.5 g N m-2 yr-1 added
  5. plot: plot number
  6. species: species code
    • ACRU: red maple
    • ACSA: sugar maple
    • BEAL: birch
    • PIRU: red spruce
    • PIST: white pine
    • TSCA: hemlock
  7. age: seedling age (1 - 6 years old)
  8. leaf: final seedling leaf biomass (mg); missing for Seed addition and Natural regeneration treatments (unit: milligram / missing value: NA)
  9. stem: final seedling stem biomass (mg); missing for Seed addition and Natural regeneration treatments (unit: milligram / missing value: NA)
  10. root: final seedling root biomass (mg); missing for Seed addition and Natural regeneration treatments (unit: milligram / missing value: NA)
  11. total: final seedling total biomass (mg) (unit: milligram / missing value: NA)

hf035-08: exp 3 - plot environmental conditions

  1. stand: stand type (Hemlock, Red oak), with dominant species contributing more than 50 % basal area
    • Hemlock: Hemlock
    • Red oak: Red oak
  2. site: site number
  3. n: nitrogen addition level
    • 0: no nitrogen added
    • 2: 2.5 g N m-2 yr-1 added
    • 7: 7.5 g N m-2 yr-1 added
  4. plot: plot number
  5. ph: soil pH in O horizon (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  6. water: volumetric water content in O horizon (unit: cubicCentimetersPerCubicCentimeters / missing value: NA)
  7. par.canopy: % penetration of light through canopy layer (top of canopy to 1 m) (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  8. par.herb: % penetration of light through herbaceous layer (1 m to 5 cm) (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  9. nh4: ammonium availability assessed by ion exchange resin bags (unit: milligramPerKilogram / missing value: NA)
  10. no3: nitrate availability assessed by ion exchange resin bags (unit: milligramPerKilogram / missing value: NA)

hf035-09: exp 4 - individual seedling growth

  1. soil: soil type (from Hemlock or Red oak dominated stand), with dominant species contributing more than 50 % basal area
    • Red oak: Red oak
    • Hemlock: Hemlock
  2. site: site number
  3. species: species code
    • ACRU: red maple
    • ACSA: sugar maple
    • BEAL: yellow birch
    • PIRU: red spruce
    • PIST: white pine
    • TSCA: hemlock
  4. nitrogen: nitrogen addition level
    • 0: no nitrogen added
    • 2: 2.5 g N m-2 yr-1 added
    • 7: 7.5 g N m-2 yr-1 added
  5. block: block number
  6. leaf: final seedling leaf biomass (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  7. stem: final seedling stem biomass (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  8. root: final seedling root biomass (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  9. total: final seedling total biomass (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  10. n.weight: foliar nitrogen concentration on a weight basis (unit: milligramPerGram / missing value: NA)
  11. n.area: foliar nitrogen concentration on an area basis (unit: milligramPerCentimeterSquared / missing value: NA)

hf035-10: exp 4 - seedling growth in stands

  1. soil: soil type (from Hemlock or Red oak dominated stand), with dominant species contributing more than 50 % basal area
    • Hm: hemlock
    • Hd: red oak
  2. site: site number
  3. nitrogen: Nitrogen addition level - 0, 2.5, 7.5 g N m-2 yr-1
    • 0: no nitrogen added
    • 2: 2.5 g N m-2 yr-1 added
    • 7: 7.5 g N m-2 yr-1 added
  4. block: block number
  5. species: species code
    • ACRU: red maple
    • ACSA: sugar maple
    • BEAL: yellow birch
    • PIRU: red spruce
    • PIST: white pine
    • TSCA: hemlock
  6. rep: replicate within stand
  7. stand: individual stand identification
  8. leaf: final seedling leaf biomass (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  9. stem: final seedling stem biomass (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  10. root: final seedling root biomass (unit: gram / missing value: NA)
  11. total: final seedling total biomass (unit: gram / missing value: NA)

hf035-11: exp 5 - leaf level photosynthesis

  1. month: month of measurement
    • June: June
    • Aug: August
  2. site: site number
  3. species: species code
    • ACRU: red maple
    • QURU: red oak
    • TSCA: hemlock
  4. layer: canopy layer
    • 1: upper
    • 2: middle
    • 3: lower
  5. age: age classes for hemlock needles shown as year of leaf formation (1996, 1995, 1994); broad-leaved species shown with a "NA"
  6. sun.shade: sunlit or shaded leaves
    • SUN: sunlit leaves
    • SHADE: shaded leaves
  7. photo: instantaneous leaf-level photosynthetic rate (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  8. light: Photosynthetically active radiation falling on individual leaves (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)

hf035-12: exp 6 - canopy fluxes and micrometeorology

  1. datetime: date and time
  2. doy: day of year (unit: nominalDay )
  3. time: time of day (unit: nominalHour )
  4. sap.tsca: hemlock sap flow (average of three trees) scaled to projected canopy area (unit: millimolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  5. sap.acru: red maple sap flow (average of three trees) scaled to projected canopy area (unit: millimolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  6. sap.quru: red oak sap flow (average of three trees) scaled to projected canopy area (unit: millimolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  7. photo.tsca: hemlock photosynthesis (average of three trees) scaled to projected canopy area (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  8. photo.acru: red maple photosynthesis (average of three trees) scaled to projected canopy area; times when trees were leafless shown as "NA" (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  9. photo.quru: red oak photosynthesis (average of three trees) scaled to projected canopy area; times when trees were leafless shown as "NA" (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  10. airt: air temperature (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  11. rh: Relative humidity, % (unit: number / missing value: NA)
  12. wind1: wind speed in upper canopy (unit: metersPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  13. wind2: wind speed in lower canopy (unit: metersPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  14. t1tsca: hemlock leaf temperature in upper canopy (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  15. t2tsca: hemlock leaf temperature in lower canopy (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  16. t1.acru: red maple leaf temperature in upper canopy; times when trees were leafless shown as "NA" (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  17. t2.acru: red maple leaf temperature in lower canopy; times when trees were leafless shown as "NA" (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  18. t1.quru: red oak leaf temperature in upper canopy; times when trees were leafless shown as "NA" (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)
  19. t2.quru: red oak leaf temperature in lower canopy; times when trees were leafless shown as "NA" (unit: celsius / missing value: NA)

hf035-13: exp 6 - leaf level gas exchange

  1. month: month of measurement
    • May: May
    • July: July
    • Sept: September
  2. species: species code
    • ACRU: red maple
    • QURU: red oak
    • TSCA: hemlock
  3. tree: tree number
  4. layer: canopy layer
    • Lower: lower
    • Upper: upper
  5. age: age classes for hemlock needles shown as year of leaf formation (1999, 1998, 1997); broad-leaved species shown with a "NA"
  6. photo: instantaneous leaf-level photosynthetic rate (unit: micromolePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)
  7. cond: instantaneous leaf-level conductance (unit: molePerMeterSquaredPerSecond / missing value: NA)